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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp was -1.02. The lowest was -3.42. And the median was -2.42.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.932||+||0.528 * 0.9648||+||0.404 * 0.9553||+||0.892 * 1.0296||+||0.115 * 0.9836|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0089||+||4.679 * -0.024||-||0.327 * 1.2251|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $476 Mil.|
Revenue was 772.031 + 832.849 + 809.527 + 847.028 = $3,261 Mil.
Gross Profit was 255.18 + 267.628 + 257.069 + 267.764 = $1,048 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,687 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,381 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $354 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $65 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $352 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $658 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $802 Mil.
Net Income was 94.163 + 101.779 + 99.181 + 101.504 = $397 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.154 + 2.379 + -2.937 + -1.887 = $-2 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 75.566 + 192.954 + 144.38 + 67.265 = $480 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $496 Mil.
Revenue was 818.594 + 820.866 + 797.271 + 731.068 = $3,168 Mil.
Gross Profit was 255.355 + 254.297 + 247.458 + 224.658 = $982 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,504 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,168 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $349 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $63 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $339 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $696 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $420 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(475.659 / 3261.435)||/||(495.712 / 3167.799)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(267.628 / 3167.799)||/||(255.18 / 3261.435)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1686.565 + 353.873) / 3380.785)||/||(1 - (1503.933 + 349.043) / 3167.507)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(63.252 / (63.252 + 349.043))||/||(65.397 / (65.397 + 353.873))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(352.353 / 3261.435)||/||(339.229 / 3167.799)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((801.883 + 657.668) / 3380.785)||/||((420.406 + 695.769) / 3167.507)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(396.627 - -2.291||-||480.165)||/||3380.785|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp has a M-score of -2.74 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp Annual Data
Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp Quarterly Data