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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Western Digital Corp was 14.30. The lowest was -16.56. And the median was -2.81.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Western Digital Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.2205||+||0.528 * 1.0827||+||0.404 * 2.3398||+||0.892 * 1.0257||+||0.115 * 0.9011|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.5692||+||4.679 * -0.0669||-||0.327 * 1.6722|
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $2,023 Mil.|
Revenue was 4714 + 3495 + 2822 + 3317 = $14,348 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1335 + 821 + 753 + 906 = $3,815 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9,123 Mil.
Total Assets was $29,010 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,359 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,426 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,558 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,919 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $13,055 Mil.
Net Income was -366 + -366 + 74 + 251 = $-407 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -272 + -73 + 0 + 0 = $-345 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 440 + 355 + 485 + 598 = $1,878 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,616 Mil.
Revenue was 3360 + 3191 + 3550 + 3888 = $13,989 Mil.
Gross Profit was 955 + 930 + 1032 + 1110 = $4,027 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $8,655 Mil.
Total Assets was $15,261 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,890 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,061 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $968 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,231 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,109 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(2023 / 14348)||/||(1616 / 13989)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(4027 / 13989)||/||(3815 / 14348)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (9123 + 3359) / 29010)||/||(1 - (8655 + 2890) / 15261)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1061 / (1061 + 2890))||/||(1426 / (1426 + 3359))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1558 / 14348)||/||(968 / 13989)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((13055 + 3919) / 29010)||/||((2109 + 3231) / 15261)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-407 - -345||-||1878)||/||29010|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Western Digital Corp has a M-score of -2.31 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Western Digital Corp Annual Data
Western Digital Corp Quarterly Data