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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Wal-Mart Stores Inc was -1.84. The lowest was -3.13. And the median was -2.62.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Wal-Mart Stores Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0037||+||0.528 * 0.975||+||0.404 * 1.0149||+||0.892 * 0.9963||+||0.115 * 0.9537|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0546||+||4.679 * -0.0884||-||0.327 * 1.0293|
|This Year (Jul16) TTM:||Last Year (Jul15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $5,275 Mil.|
Revenue was 120854 + 115904 + 129667 + 117408 = $483,833 Mil.
Gross Profit was 31369 + 29360 + 32668 + 29962 = $123,359 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $58,232 Mil.
Total Assets was $197,886 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $115,410 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $9,701 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $99,563 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $68,122 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $42,743 Mil.
Net Income was 3773 + 3079 + 4574 + 3304 = $14,730 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 8738 + 6193 + 12384 + 4903 = $32,218 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $5,275 Mil.
Revenue was 120229 + 114826 + 131565 + 119001 = $485,621 Mil.
Gross Profit was 30173 + 28343 + 32450 + 29754 = $120,720 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $58,132 Mil.
Total Assets was $198,620 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $116,511 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $9,304 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $94,757 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $65,262 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $42,843 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(5275 / 483833)||/||(5275 / 485621)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(120720 / 485621)||/||(123359 / 483833)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (58232 + 115410) / 197886)||/||(1 - (58132 + 116511) / 198620)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(9304 / (9304 + 116511))||/||(9701 / (9701 + 115410))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(99563 / 483833)||/||(94757 / 485621)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((42743 + 68122) / 197886)||/||((42843 + 65262) / 198620)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(14730 - 0||-||32218)||/||197886|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Wal-Mart Stores Inc has a M-score of -2.92 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Wal-Mart Stores Inc Annual Data
Wal-Mart Stores Inc Quarterly Data