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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Westell Technologies Inc has a M-score of -2.71 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Westell Technologies Inc was 2.30. The lowest was -5.46. And the median was -2.71.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Westell Technologies Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.3971||+||0.528 * 1.0052||+||0.404 * 2.0458||+||0.892 * 1.4055||+||0.115 * 1.0748|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8925||+||4.679 * -0.1178||-||0.327 * 0.8008|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $11.9 Mil.|
Revenue was 23.646 + 27.825 + 24.421 + 25.236 = $101.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 8.065 + 9.684 + 8.524 + 12.235 = $38.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $86.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $139.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $6.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $27.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $13.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was -14.649 + -2.818 + 4.878 + 1.925 = $-10.7 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.016 + 0.061 + 0.007 + -0.031 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2.305 + -2.519 + 0.906 + 5.018 = $5.7 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $21.4 Mil.
Revenue was 29.96 + 22.456 + 10.663 + 8.873 = $72.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was 12.022 + 8.417 + 4.013 + 3.09 = $27.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $123.7 Mil.
Total Assets was $151.6 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $21.7 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $18.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(11.925 / 101.128)||/||(21.369 / 71.952)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(9.684 / 71.952)||/||(8.065 / 101.128)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (86.467 + 2.597) / 139.183)||/||(1 - (123.679 + 1.252) / 151.618)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(3.863 / (3.863 + 1.252))||/||(6.137 / (6.137 + 2.597))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(27.267 / 101.128)||/||(21.736 / 71.952)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 13.429) / 139.183)||/||((0 + 18.267) / 151.618)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-10.664 - 0.021||-||5.71)||/||139.183|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Westell Technologies Inc has a M-score of -2.71 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Westell Technologies Inc Annual Data
Westell Technologies Inc Quarterly Data