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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Western Union Co has a M-score of -2.60 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Western Union Co was 10.95. The lowest was -3.60. And the median was -2.67.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Western Union Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 1.0518||+||0.404 * 0.9588||+||0.892 * 0.9947||+||0.115 * 0.9948|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0766||+||4.679 * -0.0263||-||0.327 * 0.9794|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.|
Revenue was 1350.8 + 1421.9 + 1408.8 + 1385.9 = $5,567 Mil.
Gross Profit was 553.6 + 576.2 + 590.6 + 574.2 = $2,295 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $5,210 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,923 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $214 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $267 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,212 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,749 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,714 Mil.
Net Income was 203 + 173.4 + 214.4 + 198.6 = $789 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -1.7 + 0.6 + 0.6 + 2.7 = $2 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 196.8 + 277.7 + 333.4 + 240.2 = $1,048 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.
Revenue was 1325.4 + 1424.7 + 1421.6 + 1425.1 = $5,597 Mil.
Gross Profit was 566 + 607.3 + 625.3 + 627.6 = $2,426 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,736 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,362 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $199 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $245 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,132 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,426 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,727 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 5567.4)||/||(0 / 5596.8)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(576.2 / 5596.8)||/||(553.6 / 5567.4)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (5209.9 + 214) / 9922.6)||/||(1 - (4736.3 + 198.7) / 9361.7)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(245.1 / (245.1 + 198.7))||/||(267.1 / (267.1 + 214))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1212.1 / 5567.4)||/||(1131.8 / 5596.8)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3714.1 + 4749.2) / 9922.6)||/||((3726.8 + 4425.9) / 9361.7)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(789.4 - 2.2||-||1048.1)||/||9922.6|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Western Union Co has a M-score of -2.60 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Western Union Co Annual Data
Western Union Co Quarterly Data