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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Western Union Co was 62.73. The lowest was -5.25. And the median was -2.62.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Western Union Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 0.9885||+||0.404 * 1.0437||+||0.892 * 0.9943||+||0.115 * 0.9943|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9926||+||4.679 * -0.0207||-||0.327 * 0.9659|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,060 Mil.|
Revenue was 1383.6 + 1320.9 + 1409.9 + 1440.9 = $5,555 Mil.
Gross Profit was 584.2 + 549.1 + 578 + 600.4 = $2,312 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $5,121 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,064 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $201 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $263 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,198 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,565 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,726 Mil.
Net Income was 189.3 + 203.9 + 221.5 + 234.1 = $849 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -3.3 + -0.8 + 0.1 + 0.1 = $-4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 253.9 + 211.8 + 270.6 + 325.2 = $1,062 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.
Revenue was 1405.6 + 1350.8 + 1421.9 + 1408.8 = $5,587 Mil.
Gross Profit was 577.8 + 553.6 + 576.2 + 590.6 = $2,298 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $5,208 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,875 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $209 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $269 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,214 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,704 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,719 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1059.5 / 5555.3)||/||(0 / 5587.1)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(549.1 / 5587.1)||/||(584.2 / 5555.3)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (5120.9 + 201.2) / 10063.8)||/||(1 - (5208.4 + 208.5) / 9874.6)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(269.1 / (269.1 + 208.5))||/||(263.1 / (263.1 + 201.2))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1198.4 / 5555.3)||/||(1214.2 / 5587.1)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3725.8 + 4565.1) / 10063.8)||/||((3719.1 + 4703.5) / 9874.6)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(848.8 - -3.9||-||1061.5)||/||10063.8|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Western Union Co has a M-score of -2.56 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Western Union Co Annual Data
Western Union Co Quarterly Data