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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
TAL Education Group has a M-score of -2.23 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 6 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of TAL Education Group was -2.23. The lowest was -2.56. And the median was -2.40.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of TAL Education Group for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 0.9365||+||0.404 * 3.6727||+||0.892 * 1.4286||+||0.115 * 0.3881|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9931||+||4.679 * -0.2498||-||0.327 * 0.8117|
|This Year (Feb14) TTM:||Last Year (Nov12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $12.8 Mil.|
Revenue was 86.999 + 73.53 + 91.968 + 59.648 = $312.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 46.231 + 37.668 + 48.974 + 28.259 = $161.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $300.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $427.6 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $78.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $17.4 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $105.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $166.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 16.71 + 12.509 + 23.329 + 6.848 = $59.4 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.365 + 0.002 + -0.272 + -0.114 = $-0.7 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 101.558 + 0 + 0 + 65.41 = $167.0 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0.0 Mil.
Revenue was 48.905 + 68.064 + 49.315 + 52.216 = $218.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 22.167 + 36.219 + 23.538 + 23.705 = $105.6 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $265.6 Mil.
Total Assets was $351.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $75.4 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $5.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $74.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $169.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(12.825 / 312.145)||/||(0 / 218.5)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(37.668 / 218.5)||/||(46.231 / 312.145)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (300.377 + 78.625) / 427.599)||/||(1 - (265.573 + 75.363) / 351.823)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(5.695 / (5.695 + 75.363))||/||(17.378 / (17.378 + 78.625))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(105.246 / 312.145)||/||(74.18 / 218.5)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 166.756) / 427.599)||/||((0 + 169.042) / 351.823)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(59.396 - -0.749||-||166.968)||/||427.599|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
TAL Education Group has a M-score of -2.23 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
TAL Education Group Annual Data
TAL Education Group Quarterly Data