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Westlake Earnings Power Value (EPV)

: $57.01 (As of Mar22)
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As of Mar22, Westlake's earnings power value is $57.01. *

* GuruFocus does not store EPV value into our database if Average Maintenance CAPEX is 0.

Margin of Safety is -119.19

The basic concept of EPV is that one should value a stock based on the current free cash flow of a company and not on future projections which may, or may not, come true. It is arguably a better way to analyze stocks than Discounted Cash Flow analysis that relies on highly speculative growth assumptions many years into the future. Assumption: Current profitability is sustainable.


Westlake Earnings Power Value (EPV) Historical Data

The historical data trend for Westlake's Earnings Power Value (EPV) can be seen below:

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

* Premium members only.

Westlake Annual Data
Trend Dec12 Dec13 Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17 Dec18 Dec19 Dec20 Dec21
Earnings Power Value (EPV)
Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 19.65 34.03 18.82 30.84 54.04

Westlake Quarterly Data
Jun17 Sep17 Dec17 Mar18 Jun18 Sep18 Dec18 Mar19 Jun19 Sep19 Dec19 Mar20 Jun20 Sep20 Dec20 Mar21 Jun21 Sep21 Dec21 Mar22
Earnings Power Value (EPV) Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 32.78 43.06 57.72 54.04 57.01

Competitive Comparison

For the Specialty Chemicals subindustry, Westlake's Earnings Power Value (EPV), along with its competitors' market caps and Earnings Power Value (EPV) data, can be viewed below:

* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap. Note that "N/A" values will not show up in the chart.

   

Westlake Earnings Power Value (EPV) Distribution

For the Chemicals industry and Basic Materials sector, Westlake's Earnings Power Value (EPV) distribution charts can be found below:

* The bar in red indicates where Westlake's Earnings Power Value (EPV) falls into.



Westlake Earnings Power Value (EPV) Calculation

Earnings Power Value also known as just Earnings Power is a valuation technique popularised by Bruce Greenwald, an authority on value investing at Columbia University. It is arguably a better way to analyze stocks than Discounted Cash Flow analysis that relies on highly speculative growth assumptions many years into the future.

The basic concept of EPV is that one should value a stock based on the current free cash flow of a company and not on future projections which may, or may not, come true. This valuation tool excludes the potential growth that a company may have so that needs to be looked at separately. Since future growth is excluded from the analysis, only the maintenance capital expenditures are subtracted from after-tax EBIT (earnings before interest and taxes) and growth capex is ignored.

Westlake's "Earning Power" Calculation:

Average of Last 20 Quarters Last Quarter
Revenue 9,238
DDA 735
Operating Margin % 14.67
SGA * 25% 120
Tax Rate % -12.35
Maintenance Capex 534
Cash and Cash Equivalents 1,055
Short-Term Debt 264
Long-Term Debt 5,416
Shares Outstanding (Diluted) 129

1. Start with "Earnings" not including accounting adjustments (one-time charges not excluded unless policy has changed). "Earnings" are "Operating Income.

2. Look at average margins over a business/Industry cycle: Average Operating Margin = 14.67%

To normalize margins and eliminate the effects on profitability of valuing the firm at different points in the business cycle, it is usually best to take a long-term average of operating margins. Ideally this would be as long as 10 years and include at least one economic downturn. However, since most of companies do not have as long as 10-year history, here GuruFocus uses the latest 5 years data to do the calculation. To smooth out unusual years but reflect recent developments, we take an average of the 5 year margin.

3. Multiply average margins by sustainable revenues and then adjust for maintenance SGA. This yields "normalized" EBIT:

To be conservative, GuruFocus uses an average of the 5 year revenues as the sustainable revenue.
EPV analysis recognises that part of SG&A expenditure is made to maintain and replace the existing assets, while part is made to grow sales. Since EPV is only interested in what it costs a going concern to maintain its existing asset base, it adds back a percentage of SG&A (between 15% and 50% - this is a matter of judgment and industry knowledge) to make up for the fact that some of this expenditure went to fund growth and shouldn't be accounted for. To start off, we assume 25% for the sake of prudence.
Sustainable Revenue = $ Mil, Average Operating Margin = 14.67%, Average Adjusted SGA = 120,
therefore "Normalized" EBIT = Sustainable Revenue * Average Operating Margin + Average Adjusted SGA = 9,238 * 14.67% +120 = $1474.87337 Mil.

4. Multiply by one minus Average Tax Rate (NOPAT):

Same as average operating margin calculation, GuruFocus takes an average of the 5 years tax rates.
Average Tax Rate = -12.35%, and "Normalized" EBIT = $1474.87337 Mil,
therefore After-tax "Normalized" EBIT = "Normalized" EBIT * ( 1 - Average Tax Rate ) = 1474.87337 * ( 1 - -12.35% ) = $1657.0128568281 Mil.

5. Add back Excess Depreciation (after tax at 1/2 average tax rate). This yields "normalized" Earnings:

Excess Depreciation = Average DDA * % of Excess Depreciation (after tax at 1/2 average tax rate) = 735 * 0.5 * -12.35% = $-45.3844125 Mil.
"Normalized" Earnings = After-tax "Normalized" EBIT + Excess Depreciation = 1657.0128568281 + -45.3844125 = $1611.6284443281 Mil.

6. Adjusted for Maintenance Capital Expenditure:

First, calculate the revenue change regarding to the previous year. If the revenue decreased from the previous year, then the Maintenance Capital Expenditure = Capital Expenditure (positive).
Second, if the revenue increased from the previous year, then calculate the percentage of Net PPE as of corresponding Revenue.
Third, calculate Capital Expenditure (positive) - percentage of Net PPE as of corresponding Revenue * revenue increase.
If [Capital Expenditure (positive) - percentage of Net PPE as of corresponding Revenue * revenue increase] was negative, then the Maintenance Capital Expenditure = Capital Expenditure (positive).
If [Capital Expenditure (positive) - percentage of Net PPE as of corresponding Revenue * revenue increase] was positive, then the Maintenance Capital Expenditure = Capital Expenditure (positive) - percentage of Net PPE as of corresponding Revenue * revenue increase.
Fourth, GuruFocus uses an average of the 5 year maintenance capital expenditures as maintenance CAPEX.
Westlake's Average Maintenance CAPEX = $534 Mil *.
* GuruFocus does not store EPV value into our database if Average Maintenance CAPEX is 0.

7. Investors require a return of "WACC" for the risk they are taking: WACC = 9%

8. Westlake's current cash and cash equivalent = $1,055 Mil.
Westlake's current interest bearing debt = Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation + Short-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation = 5,416 + 264 = $5680 Mil.
Westlake's current Shares Outstanding (Diluted Average) = 129 Mil.

Westlake's Earnings Power Value (EPV) for Mar22 is calculated as:

EPV = ( ( Norm. Earnings-Maint. CAPEX *) / WACC + CashandEquiv - Int. Bearing Debt ) / Shares Outstanding (Diluted Average)
= ( ( 1611.6284443281 - 534)/ 9%+1,055-5680 )/129
=57.01

Margin of Safety (EPV)=( Earnings Power Value (EPV)-Current Price )/Earnings Power Value (EPV)
=( 57.013038961338-124.965 )/57.013038961338
= -119.19%

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

* GuruFocus does not store EPV value into our database if Average Maintenance CAPEX is 0.


Westlake  (NYSE:WLK) Earnings Power Value (EPV) Explanation

Assumption: Current profitability is sustainable.

Earnings power value (EPV) uses a very basic equation which assumes no growth, although it does rely on an assumption about the cost of capital as well as the fact that current earnings are sustainable. It also involves several adjustments to clean up the underlying Earnings figures.


Be Aware

Though using today's earnings in calculating Earnings Power Value, GuruFocus is normalizing these earnings to the business cycle. This eliminates the effects on profitability of valuing the firm at different points in the business cycle. This means that we are considering the average earnings over 5 years.


Westlake Earnings Power Value (EPV) Related Terms

Thank you for viewing the detailed overview of Westlake's Earnings Power Value (EPV) provided by GuruFocus.com. Please click on the following links to see related term pages.


Westlake Business Description

Westlake logo
Industry
Basic Materials » Chemicals NAICS : 325110 SIC : 2869
Traded in Other Exchanges
Address
2801 Post Oak Boulevard, Suite 600, Houston, TX, USA, 77056
Westlake Corp is a manufacturer and global supplier of chemicals, polymers and building products. Its Performance & Essential Materials segment offers a wide range of essential building blocks for making products utilized in everyday living, including olefins, vinyl chemicals, polyethylene, and epoxies. Its Housing & Infrastructure Products segment produces key finished goods for building products, pipe & fittings, and global compounds businesses.
Executives
Sheets Jeffrey Wayne director 600 N. DAIRY ASHFORD HOUSTON TX 77079
Chao John Tsung-chen director, 10 percent owner 26 GRAMERCY PARK SOUTH, 7EF NEW YORK NY 10003
Chao David Tsung-hung director, 10 percent owner 1000 UPTOWN PARK BLVD. #34 HOUSTON TX 77056
Haas Marius director ONE DELL WAY ROUND ROCK TX 78682
Graff Michael J director 2801 POST OAK BLVD, SUITE 600 HOUSTON TX 77056
Northcutt R Bruce director 2801 POST OAK BLVD, SUITE 600 HOUSTON TX 77056
Jenkins Dorothy C director, 10 percent owner 2801 POST OAK BLVD, SUITE 600 HOUSTON TX 77056
Lubel Kimberly S director P.O. BOX 696000 SAN ANTONIO TX 78269-6000
Mccollum Mark A director 3000 NORTH SAM HOUSTON PARKWAY E. HOUSTON TX 77002
Kearns Roger L. officer: EVP, Vinyls Chemicals 2801 POST OAK BLVD. HOUSTON TX 77056
Zoeller Johnathan Stevan officer: VP and CAO 2801 POST OAK BLVD. SUITE 600 HOUSTON TX 77056
Ttwfgp Llc 10 percent owner 2801 POST OAK BLVD, SUITE 600 HOUSTON TX 77056
Chao Albert director, 10 percent owner, officer: President & CEO 2801 POST OAK BLVD, SUITE 600 HOUSTON TX 77056
Kenner Andrew officer: SVP - Chemical Manufacturing 2801 POST OAK BLVD, SUITE 600 HOUSTON TX 77056
Bender Mark Steven officer: EVP and CFO 2801 POST OAK BLVD, SUITE 600 HOUSTON TX 77056

Westlake Headlines

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