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Apple Inc  (NAS:AAPL) Piotroski F-Score: 6 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Apple Inc has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

NAS:AAPL' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 2   Max: 9
Current: 6

2
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Apple Inc was 9. The lowest was 2. And the median was 6.


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

* Premium members only.

Apple Inc Annual Data

Sep09 Sep10 Sep11 Sep12 Sep13 Sep14 Sep15 Sep16 Sep17 Sep18
Piotroski F-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 5.00 8.00 5.00 4.00 6.00

Apple Inc Quarterly Data

Dec13 Mar14 Jun14 Sep14 Dec14 Mar15 Jun15 Sep15 Dec15 Mar16 Jun16 Sep16 Dec16 Mar17 Jun17 Sep17 Dec17 Mar18 Jun18 Sep18
Piotroski F-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 4.00 5.00 7.00 7.00 6.00

Competitive Comparison
* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap.


Apple Inc Distribution

* The bar in red indicates where Apple Inc's Piotroski F-Score falls into.


How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Sep18) TTM:Last Year (Sep17) TTM:
Net Income was 20065 + 13822 + 11519 + 14125 = $59,531 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 28293 + 15130 + 14488 + 19523 = $77,434 Mil.
Revenue was 88293 + 61137 + 53265 + 62900 = $265,595 Mil.
Gross Profit was 33912 + 23422 + 20421 + 24084 = $101,839 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Sep17)
to the end of this year (Sep18) was
(375319 + 406794 + 367502 + 349197 + 365725) / 5 = $372907.4 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Sep17) was $375,319 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $93,735 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $131,339 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $116,866 Mil.
Net Income was 17891 + 11029 + 8717 + 10714 = $48,351 Mil.

Revenue was 78351 + 52896 + 45408 + 52579 = $229,234 Mil.
Gross Profit was 30176 + 20591 + 17488 + 19931 = $88,186 Mil.
Average Net Income from the begining of last year (Sep16)
to the end of last year (Sep17) was
(321686 + 331141 + 334532 + 345173 + 375319) / 5 = $341570.2 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Sep16) was $321,686 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $97,207 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $128,645 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $100,814 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by Total Assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Apple Inc's current Net Income (TTM) was 59,531. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by Total Assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Apple Inc's current Cash Flow from Operations (TTM) was 77,434. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year's return on assets (1) to last year's return on assets.

Score 1 if it's higher, 0 if it's lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income/Total Assets(Sep17)
=59531/375319
=0.15861441

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income/Total Assets(Sep16)
=48351/321686
=0.15030496

Apple Inc's return on assets of this year was 0.15861441. Apple Inc's return on assets of last year was 0.15030496. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Apple Inc's current Net Income (TTM) was 59,531. Apple Inc's current Cash Flow from Operations (TTM) was 77,434. ==> 77,434 > 59,531 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year's gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year's gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Sep18)=Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation/Total Assetsfrom Sep17 to Sep18
=93735/372907.4
=0.25136267

Gearing (Last Year: Sep17)=Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation/Total Assetsfrom Sep16 to Sep17
=97207/341570.2
=0.28458864

Apple Inc's gearing of this year was 0.25136267. Apple Inc's gearing of last year was 0.28458864. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year's current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year's current ratio.

Score 1 if this year's current ratio is higher, 0 if it's lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Sep18)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=131339/116866
=1.12384269

Current Ratio (Last Year: Sep17)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=128645/100814
=1.27606285

Apple Inc's current ratio of this year was 1.12384269. Apple Inc's current ratio of last year was 1.27606285. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Apple Inc's number of shares in issue this year was 4847.5. Apple Inc's number of shares in issue last year was 5183.6. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year's gross margin (Gross Profit divided by sales) to last year's.

Score 1 if this year's gross margin is higher, 0 if it's lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=101839/265595
=0.38343719

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=88186/229234
=0.3846986

Apple Inc's gross margin of this year was 0.38343719. Apple Inc's gross margin of last year was 0.3846986. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year's asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year's asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year's asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it's lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep17)
=265595/375319
=0.70765136

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep16)
=229234/321686
=0.71260173

Apple Inc's asset turnover of this year was 0.70765136. Apple Inc's asset turnover of last year was 0.71260173. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+1+1+1+0+1+0+0
=6

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Apple Inc has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


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