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General Dynamics Piotroski F-Score

: 4 (As of Today)
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The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

General Dynamics has an F-score of 4 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

NYSE:GD' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 1   Max: 9
Current: 4

1
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of General Dynamics was 9. The lowest was 1. And the median was 6.


General Dynamics Piotroski F-Score Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

* Premium members only.

General Dynamics Annual Data
Dec09 Dec10 Dec11 Dec12 Dec13 Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17 Dec18
Piotroski F-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 7.00 7.00 5.00 7.00 5.00

General Dynamics Quarterly Data
Sep14 Dec14 Mar15 Jun15 Sep15 Dec15 Mar16 Jun16 Sep16 Dec16 Mar17 Jun17 Sep17 Dec17 Mar18 Jun18 Sep18 Dec18 Mar19 Jun19
Piotroski F-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 4.00

Competitive Comparison
* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap.


General Dynamics Piotroski F-Score Distribution

* The bar in red indicates where General Dynamics's Piotroski F-Score falls into.


How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Jun19) TTM:Last Year (Jun18) TTM:
Net Income was 851 + 909 + 745 + 806 = $3,311 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 790 + 2067 + -795 + 291 = $2,353 Mil.
Revenue was 9094 + 10378 + 9261 + 9555 = $38,288 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1687 + 1783 + 1628 + 1686 = $6,784 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Jun18)
to the end of this year (Jun19) was
(47152 + 46963 + 45408 + 47466 + 48074) / 5 = $47012.6 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Jun18) was $47,152 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $10,087 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $19,557 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $18,014 Mil.
Net Income was 764 + 636 + 799 + 786 = $2,985 Mil.

Revenue was 7580 + 8277 + 7535 + 9186 = $32,578 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1566 + 1597 + 1545 + 1700 = $6,408 Mil.
Average Net Income from the begining of last year (Jun17)
to the end of last year (Jun18) was
(33793 + 34914 + 35046 + 37219 + 47152) / 5 = $37624.8 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Jun17) was $33,793 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $11,397 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $19,827 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $16,573 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by Total Assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

General Dynamics's current Net Income (TTM) was 3,311. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by Total Assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

General Dynamics's current Cash Flow from Operations (TTM) was 2,353. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year's return on assets (1) to last year's return on assets.

Score 1 if it's higher, 0 if it's lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income/Total Assets(Jun18)
=3311/47152
=0.07021971

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income/Total Assets(Jun17)
=2985/33793
=0.0883319

General Dynamics's return on assets of this year was 0.07021971. General Dynamics's return on assets of last year was 0.0883319. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

General Dynamics's current Net Income (TTM) was 3,311. General Dynamics's current Cash Flow from Operations (TTM) was 2,353. ==> 2,353 <= 3,311 ==> CFROA <= ROA ==> Score 0.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year's gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year's gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Jun19)=Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation/Total Assetsfrom Jun18 to Jun19
=10087/47012.6
=0.2145595

Gearing (Last Year: Jun18)=Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation/Total Assetsfrom Jun17 to Jun18
=11397/37624.8
=0.30291191

General Dynamics's gearing of this year was 0.2145595. General Dynamics's gearing of last year was 0.30291191. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year's current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year's current ratio.

Score 1 if this year's current ratio is higher, 0 if it's lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Jun19)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=19557/18014
=1.0856556

Current Ratio (Last Year: Jun18)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=19827/16573
=1.19634345

General Dynamics's current ratio of this year was 1.0856556. General Dynamics's current ratio of last year was 1.19634345. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

General Dynamics's number of shares in issue this year was 290.8. General Dynamics's number of shares in issue last year was 300.1. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year's gross margin (Gross Profit divided by sales) to last year's.

Score 1 if this year's gross margin is higher, 0 if it's lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=6784/38288
=0.17718345

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=6408/32578
=0.19669716

General Dynamics's gross margin of this year was 0.17718345. General Dynamics's gross margin of last year was 0.19669716. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year's asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year's asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year's asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it's lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Jun18)
=38288/47152
=0.81201222

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Jun17)
=32578/33793
=0.96404581

General Dynamics's asset turnover of this year was 0.81201222. General Dynamics's asset turnover of last year was 0.96404581. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+0+0+1+0+1+0+0
=4

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

General Dynamics has an F-score of 4 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

General Dynamics  (NYSE:GD) Piotroski F-Score Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


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