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Gold Fields Beneish M-Score

: -2.31 (As of Today)
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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Good Sign:

Beneish M-Score -2.31 no higher than -1.78, which implies that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.

The historical rank and industry rank for Gold Fields's Beneish M-Score or its related term are showing as below:

GFI' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -64.79   Med: -2.66   Max: 0.78
Current: -2.31

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Gold Fields was 0.78. The lowest was -64.79. And the median was -2.66.


Gold Fields Beneish M-Score Historical Data

The historical data trend for Gold Fields's Beneish M-Score can be seen below:

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

* Premium members only.

Gold Fields Annual Data
Trend Dec12 Dec13 Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17 Dec18 Dec19 Dec20 Dec21
Beneish M-Score
Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -3.21 -2.43 -2.89 -2.43 -2.31

Gold Fields Semi-Annual Data
Jun12 Dec12 Jun13 Dec13 Jun14 Dec14 Jun15 Dec15 Jun16 Dec16 Jun17 Dec17 Jun18 Dec18 Jun19 Dec19 Jun20 Dec20 Jun21 Dec21
Beneish M-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -2.89 - -2.43 - -2.31

Competitive Comparison

For the Gold subindustry, Gold Fields's Beneish M-Score, along with its competitors' market caps and Beneish M-Score data, can be viewed below:

* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap. Note that "N/A" values will not show up in the chart.

   

Gold Fields Beneish M-Score Distribution

For the Metals & Mining industry and Basic Materials sector, Gold Fields's Beneish M-Score distribution charts can be found below:

* The bar in red indicates where Gold Fields's Beneish M-Score falls into.



Gold Fields Beneish M-Score Calculation

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Altman Z-Score) or business trend (Piotroski F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Gold Fields for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.0791+0.528 * 1.0329+0.404 * 0.9162+0.892 * 1.0779+0.115 * 0.9886
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.5809+4.679 * -0.0302-0.327 * 0.8418
=-2.37

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

This Year (Dec21) TTM:Last Year (Dec20) TTM:
Total Receivables was $155 Mil.
Revenue was $4,195 Mil.
Gross Profit was $1,708 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,421 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,349 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5,079 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $713 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $41 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $822 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $1,433 Mil.
Net Income was $789 Mil.
Gross Profit was $-219 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was $1,230 Mil.
Total Receivables was $134 Mil.
Revenue was $3,892 Mil.
Gross Profit was $1,637 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,760 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,473 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $4,771 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $661 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $66 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $917 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $1,808 Mil.




1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of Revenue in Total Receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(155.4 / 4195.2) / (133.6 / 3892.1)
=0.03704233 / 0.03432594
=1.0791

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(1636.7 / 3892.1) / (1707.9 / 4195.2)
=0.42051849 / 0.40710812
=1.0329

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than Property, Plant and Equipment to Total Assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (1421.1 + 5079.1) / 7348.8) / (1 - (1759.8 + 4771.2) / 7472.8)
=0.11547464 / 0.1260304
=0.9162

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of Revenue in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=4195.2 / 3892.1
=1.0779

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(661.3 / (661.3 + 4771.2)) / (713.2 / (713.2 + 5079.1))
=0.12173033 / 0.12312898
=0.9886

Note: If the Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization data is not available, we assume that the depreciation rate is constant and set the Depreciation Index to 1.

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) to Sales in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(41.2 / 4195.2) / (65.8 / 3892.1)
=0.00982075 / 0.01690604
=0.5809

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to Total Assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((1433.2 + 822.4) / 7348.8) / ((1808.2 + 916.5) / 7472.8)
=0.30693447 / 0.36461567
=0.8418

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(789.3 - -218.6 - 1230.2) / 7348.8
=-0.0302

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Gold Fields has a M-score of -2.37 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.


Gold Fields Beneish M-Score Related Terms

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Gold Fields Business Description

Gold Fields logo
Address
150 Helen Road, Sandown, Sandton, ZAF, 2196
Gold Fields Ltd is a globally diversified gold miner and producer with eight operating mines in Australia, Ghana, Peru, and South Africa. The majority of group revenue is generated in the Australian mines, largely the St Ives and Granny Smith sites, with Ghana the second- largest contributor of revenue. The company is involved in underground and surface gold and copper mining and related activities, including exploration, development, extraction, processing, and smelting. In Peru, the company also produces copper, and it has other precious metal exploration interests in Africa, Eurasia, Australasia, and the Americas.

Gold Fields Headlines

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