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GuruFocus has detected 4 Warning Signs with Nokia Oyj $NOK.
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Nokia Oyj (NYSE:NOK)
Beneish M-Score
-2.34 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Nokia Oyj has a M-score of -2.38 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

NOK' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -4.18   Max: 316315.23
Current: -2.34

-4.18
316315.23

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Nokia Oyj was 316315.23. The lowest was -4.18. And the median was -2.24.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Nokia Oyj for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.645+0.528 * 1.0219+0.404 * 1.1181+0.892 * 1.5316+0.115 * 0.5307
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0207+4.679 * -0.0074-0.327 * 1.0541
=-2.38

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Mar17) TTM:Last Year (Mar16) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $7,213 Mil.
Revenue was 5751.87165775 + 7022.15189873 + 6610.54994388 + 6273.03370787 = $25,658 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2272.72727273 + 2830.16877637 + 2487.09315376 + 2278.65168539 = $9,869 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $21,759 Mil.
Total Assets was $47,680 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,068 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,739 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4,082 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $13,598 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,391 Mil.
Net Income was -521.92513369 + 667.721518987 + -140.291806958 + -747.191011236 = $-742 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -9.6256684492 + 12.6582278481 + 3.367003367 + 1.12359550562 = $8 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -505.882352941 + 537.974683544 + 262.626262626 + -692.134831461 = $-397 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $7,301 Mil.
Revenue was 6136.97104677 + 3931.37254902 + 3407.40740741 + 3276.09427609 = $16,752 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1756.1247216 + 1844.22657952 + 1476.99214366 + 1507.29517396 = $6,585 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $26,470 Mil.
Total Assets was $51,955 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,241 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $717 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,611 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $14,147 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,449 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(7212.8342246 / 25657.6072082) / (7300.66815145 / 16751.8452793)
=0.28111874 / 0.43581277
=0.645

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(6584.63861874 / 16751.8452793) / (9868.64088825 / 25657.6072082)
=0.39306945 / 0.38462826
=1.0219

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (21759.3582888 + 2068.44919786) / 47680.2139037) / (1 - (26469.9331849 + 2240.53452116) / 51955.4565702)
=0.50025796 / 0.44740226
=1.1181

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=25657.6072082 / 16751.8452793
=1.5316

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(716.72266576 / (716.72266576 + 2240.53452116)) / (1738.74188596 / (1738.74188596 + 2068.44919786))
=0.24236061 / 0.4566994
=0.5307

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(4082.0886498 / 25657.6072082) / (2611.12390334 / 16751.8452793)
=0.15909857 / 0.15587082
=1.0207

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((4391.44385027 + 13597.8609626) / 47680.2139037) / ((4448.77505568 + 14146.9933185) / 51955.4565702)
=0.37729077 / 0.35791752
=1.0541

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(-741.686432897 - 7.52315827152 - -397.416238231) / 47680.2139037
=-0.0074

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Nokia Oyj has a M-score of -2.38 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

Nokia Oyj Annual Data

Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15Dec16
DSRI 2.18591.0429
GMI 0.75750.8993
AQI 1.06980.7315
SGI 0.35271.0205
DEPI 00
SGAI 1.02271.0737
LVGI 1.05690.9263
TATA -0.09120.1157
M-score -2.63-2.15

Nokia Oyj Quarterly Data

Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16Sep16Dec16Mar17
DSRI 1.04290.96790.98680.96391.73981.37541.17680.645
GMI 0.89930.95840.95180.94061.08191.15191.18591.0219
AQI 0.73151.39241.271.14181.33881.36581.36321.1181
SGI 1.02051.01280.97610.93511.08221.33811.61791.5316
DEPI 01.24832.19210.97950.41780.28970.49260.5307
SGAI 1.07371.06331.10031.17931.1741.1621.12891.0207
LVGI 0.92630.960.88010.90380.76860.84770.86391.0541
TATA 0.11570.14820.08060.04460.0540.04010.0421-0.0074
M-score -2.15-1.64-1.89-2.34-1.31-1.48-1.36-2.38
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