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GlaxoSmithKline PLC  (NYSE:GSK) Beneish M-Score: -2.65 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

GlaxoSmithKline PLC has a M-score of -2.70 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

NYSE:GSK' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -3.52   Max: 6.61
Current: -2.65

-3.52
6.61

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of GlaxoSmithKline PLC was 6.61. The lowest was -3.52. And the median was -2.59.


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

* Premium members only.

GlaxoSmithKline PLC Annual Data

Dec08 Dec09 Dec10 Dec11 Dec12 Dec13 Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17
Beneish M-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -2.71 -2.90 -1.70 -2.75 -3.00

GlaxoSmithKline PLC Quarterly Data

Dec13 Mar14 Jun14 Sep14 Dec14 Mar15 Jun15 Sep15 Dec15 Mar16 Jun16 Sep16 Dec16 Mar17 Jun17 Sep17 Dec17 Mar18 Jun18 Sep18
Beneish M-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -3.04 -3.00 -3.09 -2.81 -2.65

Competitive Comparison
* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap.


GlaxoSmithKline PLC Distribution

* The bar in red indicates where GlaxoSmithKline PLC's Beneish M-Score falls into.



Calculation

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Altman Z-Score) or business trend (Piotroski F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of GlaxoSmithKline PLC for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.0415+0.528 * 0.9784+0.404 * 0.9955+0.892 * 1.0575+0.115 * 2.2989
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.9953+4.679 * -0.0927-0.327 * 1.0384
=-2.70

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Sep18) TTM:Last Year (Sep17) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was USD 9,532 Mil.
Revenue was 10577.7777778 + 9720.74468085 + 10086.5921788 + 10239.9463807 = USD 40,625 Mil.
Gross Profit was 7132.02614379 + 6648.93617021 + 6747.20670391 + 6810.9919571 = USD 27,339 Mil.
Total Current Assets was USD 22,769 Mil.
Total Assets was USD 76,607 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was USD 14,278 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was USD 1,341 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was USD 13,194 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was USD 24,046 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was USD 32,429 Mil.
Net Income was 1853.59477124 + 586.436170213 + 766.759776536 + -731.903485255 = USD 2,475 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = USD 0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2715.03267974 + 1811.17021277 + 1205.30726257 + 3845.84450402 = USD 9,577 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was USD 8,655 Mil.
Revenue was 10457.3333333 + 9372.59923175 + 9116.04938272 + 9470.66167291 = USD 38,417 Mil.
Gross Profit was 6921.33333333 + 6019.20614597 + 6013.58024691 + 6339.57553059 = USD 25,294 Mil.
Total Current Assets was USD 23,541 Mil.
Total Assets was USD 78,377 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was USD 14,177 Mil.
(DDA) was USD 3,485 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was USD 12,535 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was USD 36,584 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was USD 19,059 Mil.




1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of Revenue in Accounts Receivable in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(9532.02614379 / 40625.0610181) / (8654.66666667 / 38416.6436207)
=0.23463414 / 0.2252843
=1.0415

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(25293.6952568 / 38416.6436207) / (27339.160975 / 40625.0610181)
=0.65840461 / 0.67296295
=0.9784

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than Property, Plant and Equipment to Total Assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (22768.627451 + 14278.4313725) / 76606.5359477) / (1 - (23541.3333333 + 14177.3333333) / 78377.3333333)
=0.5163982 / 0.51875542
=0.9955

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of Revenue in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=40625.0610181 / 38416.6436207
=1.0575

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(3485.30073075 / (3485.30073075 + 14177.3333333)) / (1340.68783867 / (1340.68783867 + 14278.4313725))
=0.19732622 / 0.08583633
=2.2989

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of c in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(13193.6511984 / 40625.0610181) / (12535.1079283 / 38416.6436207)
=0.32476631 / 0.32629368
=0.9953

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to Total Assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((32428.7581699 + 24045.751634) / 76606.5359477) / ((19058.6666667 + 36584) / 78377.3333333)
=0.73720224 / 0.70993314
=1.0384

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(2474.88723274 - 0 - 9577.3546591) / 76606.5359477
=-0.0927

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

GlaxoSmithKline PLC has a M-score of -2.70 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


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