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UnitedHealth Group Beneish M-Score

: 0.00 (As of Today)
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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

UnitedHealth Group has a M-score of signals that the company is a manipulator.

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of UnitedHealth Group was -0.08. The lowest was -10.51. And the median was -2.42.


UnitedHealth Group Beneish M-Score Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

* Premium members only.

UnitedHealth Group Annual Data
Dec09 Dec10 Dec11 Dec12 Dec13 Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17 Dec18
Beneish M-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -2.36 -2.25 -2.40 -2.42 -2.47

UnitedHealth Group Quarterly Data
Sep14 Dec14 Mar15 Jun15 Sep15 Dec15 Mar16 Jun16 Sep16 Dec16 Mar17 Jun17 Sep17 Dec17 Mar18 Jun18 Sep18 Dec18 Mar19 Jun19
Beneish M-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -2.65 -2.21 -2.47 -2.31 0.00

Competitive Comparison
* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap.


UnitedHealth Group Beneish M-Score Distribution

* The bar in red indicates where UnitedHealth Group's Beneish M-Score falls into.



UnitedHealth Group Beneish M-Score Calculation

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Altman Z-Score) or business trend (Piotroski F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of UnitedHealth Group for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * +0.528 * +0.404 * +0.892 * +0.115 *
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * +4.679 * -0.327 *
=

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Jun19) TTM:Last Year (Jun18) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was USD 9,741 Mil.
Revenue was 60013 + 59903 + 58076 + 56174 = USD 234,166 Mil.
Gross Profit was 13231 + 13583 + 13496 + 13298 = USD 53,608 Mil.
Total Current Assets was USD 42,038 Mil.
Total Assets was USD 167,200 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was USD 8,681 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was USD 2,541 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was USD 0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was USD 62,328 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was USD 34,473 Mil.
Net Income was 3293 + 3467 + 3040 + 3188 = USD 12,988 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 582 + 405 + 341 + 382 = USD 1,710 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 5874 + 3234 + 2396 + 941 = USD 12,445 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was USD 10,874 Mil.
Revenue was 55731 + 54890 + 51763 + 50075 = USD 212,459 Mil.
Gross Profit was 12833 + 12843 + 12077 + 11806 = USD 49,559 Mil.
Total Current Assets was USD 46,634 Mil.
Total Assets was USD 154,611 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was USD 7,906 Mil.
(DDA) was USD 2,336 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was USD 0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was USD 62,052 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was USD 32,096 Mil.




1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of Revenue in Accounts Receivable in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(9741 / 234166) / (10874 / 212459)
=0.04159869 / 0.05118164
=

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(49559 / 212459) / (53608 / 234166)
=0.23326383 / 0.22893161
=

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than Property, Plant and Equipment to Total Assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (42038 + 8681) / 167200) / (1 - (46634 + 7906) / 154611)
=0.6966567 / 0.64724373
=

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of Revenue in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=234166 / 212459
=

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(2336 / (2336 + 7906)) / (2541 / (2541 + 8681))
=0.22808045 / 0.22643023
=

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of c in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(0 / 234166) / (0 / 212459)
=0 / 0
=

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to Total Assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((34473 + 62328) / 167200) / ((32096 + 62052) / 154611)
=0.57895335 / 0.60893468
=

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(12988 - 1710 - 12445) / 167200
=-0.007

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

UnitedHealth Group has a M-score of signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.


UnitedHealth Group Beneish M-Score Headlines

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