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GuruFocus has detected 5 Warning Signs with PS Business Parks Inc $PSB.
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PS Business Parks Inc (NYSE:PSB)
Beneish M-Score
-1.77 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

PS Business Parks Inc has a M-score of -1.77 signals that the company is a manipulator.

PSB' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -4.24   Max: 4.11
Current: -1.77

-4.24
4.11

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of PS Business Parks Inc was 4.11. The lowest was -4.24. And the median was -2.81.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of PS Business Parks Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.0467+0.528 * 0.986+0.404 * 2.9779+0.892 * 1.0382+0.115 * 1.0294
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.9799+4.679 * -0.0627-0.327 * 0.6154
=-1.77

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Mar17) TTM:Last Year (Mar16) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $3.3 Mil.
Revenue was 100.189 + 97.728 + 97.47 + 96.218 = $391.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 69.156 + 67.06 + 66.674 + 66.468 = $269.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $38.7 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,997.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,842.4 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $97.5 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $14.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $75.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $107.0 Mil.
Net Income was 39.931 + 36.127 + 33.679 + 29.68 = $139.4 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 3.865 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $3.9 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 67.722 + 62.834 + 70.859 + 59.441 = $260.9 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $3.1 Mil.
Revenue was 95.973 + 94.68 + 93.452 + 93.081 = $377.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 64.079 + 65.707 + 63.004 + 63.024 = $255.8 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $227.7 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,179.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,909.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $104.2 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $13.8 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $74.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $250.0 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(3.32 / 391.605) / (3.055 / 377.186)
=0.00847793 / 0.00809945
=1.0467

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(255.814 / 377.186) / (269.358 / 391.605)
=0.67821711 / 0.68783085
=0.986

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (38.737 + 1842.37) / 1997.193) / (1 - (227.683 + 1909.263) / 2179.487)
=0.05812458 / 0.01951881
=2.9779

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=391.605 / 377.186
=1.0382

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(104.202 / (104.202 + 1909.263)) / (97.523 / (97.523 + 1842.37))
=0.05175258 / 0.05027236
=1.0294

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(14.058 / 391.605) / (13.818 / 377.186)
=0.03589842 / 0.03663445
=0.9799

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((107 + 75.824) / 1997.193) / ((250 + 74.194) / 2179.487)
=0.09154048 / 0.14874785
=0.6154

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(139.417 - 3.865 - 260.856) / 1997.193
=-0.0627

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

PS Business Parks Inc has a M-score of -1.77 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

PS Business Parks Inc Annual Data

Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15Dec16
DSRI 0.9185011.04040.11711.27671.0650.51630.7940.8398
GMI 1.00470.9981.01011.00981.01860.99020.98591.02850.980.9903
AQI 0.05110.42670.20651.79812.36430.38489.72160.38030.68312.5962
SGI 1.1181.03810.96391.02131.07481.16431.03651.04730.99141.0367
DEPI 15.64320.95121.11751.2631.22250.78350.96970.97351.01531.0199
SGAI 1.0050.98540.79451.52370.87110.84770.57462.45161.00451.0555
LVGI 0.87411.79720.88081.92642.97950.68670.57920.98961.04130.2489
TATA -0.0769-0.0812-0.0799-0.0566-0.0405-0.0558-0.0532-0.0658-0.0625-0.0578
M-score -1.47-4.24-3.11-2.72-3.45-2.491.09-3.68-3.12-1.99

PS Business Parks Inc Quarterly Data

Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16Sep16Dec16Mar17
DSRI 0.51630.1631.01661.08220.7940.51710.49750.51230.83981.0467
GMI 1.02851.01851.01050.99780.980.97890.97830.98220.99030.986
AQI 0.38031.0090.37610.23050.68311.33361.10722.19632.59622.9779
SGI 1.04731.01850.99910.97750.99141.00881.02011.03741.03671.0382
DEPI 0.97350.95711.02151.03061.01530.9991.01161.02021.01991.0294
SGAI 2.45162.64572.29912.22731.00450.94131.04790.99691.05550.9799
LVGI 0.98960.99110.9970.99071.04131.04450.45310.490.24890.6154
TATA -0.0658-0.0662-0.0638-0.066-0.0625-0.0613-0.0669-0.0635-0.0578-0.0627
M-score -3.68-3.81-3.23-3.25-3.12-3.08-3.03-2.55-1.99-1.77
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