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Trio-Tech International (AMEX:TRT)
Beneish M-Score
-2.85 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Trio-Tech International has a M-score of -2.85 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

TRT' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -4.07   Max: 21.1
Current: -2.85

-4.07
21.1

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Trio-Tech International was 21.10. The lowest was -4.07. And the median was -2.79.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Trio-Tech International for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.863+0.528 * 0.9849+0.404 * 0.8587+0.892 * 1.0786+0.115 * 0.9762
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.9747+4.679 * -0.0566-0.327 * 0.9689
=-2.85

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Mar17) TTM:Last Year (Mar16) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $8.35 Mil.
Revenue was 9.825 + 9.104 + 8.971 + 8.815 = $36.72 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2.447 + 2.294 + 2.358 + 2.344 = $9.44 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $15.78 Mil.
Total Assets was $31.54 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $10.69 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1.82 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $7.56 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $8.67 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1.79 Mil.
Net Income was 0.35 + 0.31 + 0.303 + 0.18 = $1.14 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.031 + 0.195 + 0.106 + -0.086 = $0.25 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -0.658 + 1.205 + 2.466 + -0.332 = $2.68 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $8.97 Mil.
Revenue was 9.355 + 8.354 + 7.93 + 8.399 = $34.04 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2.132 + 2.115 + 2.178 + 2.197 = $8.62 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $14.78 Mil.
Total Assets was $32.09 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $11.31 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1.87 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $7.19 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $8.67 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2.32 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(8.35 / 36.715) / (8.97 / 34.038)
=0.22742748 / 0.263529
=0.863

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(8.622 / 34.038) / (9.443 / 36.715)
=0.25330513 / 0.25719733
=0.9849

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (15.779 + 10.694) / 31.535) / (1 - (14.778 + 11.313) / 32.09)
=0.16052006 / 0.18694297
=0.8587

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=36.715 / 34.038
=1.0786

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(1.873 / (1.873 + 11.313)) / (1.821 / (1.821 + 10.694))
=0.14204459 / 0.14550539
=0.9762

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(7.559 / 36.715) / (7.19 / 34.038)
=0.20588315 / 0.2112345
=0.9747

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((1.794 + 8.668) / 31.535) / ((2.319 + 8.669) / 32.09)
=0.33175836 / 0.34241197
=0.9689

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(1.143 - 0.246 - 2.681) / 31.535
=-0.0566

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Trio-Tech International has a M-score of -2.85 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

Trio-Tech International Annual Data

Jun07Jun08Jun09Jun10Jun11Jun12Jun13Jun14Jun15Jun16
DSRI 0.54150.89011.40991.6530.5831.89720.75540.86580.97571.1038
GMI 1.05231.1660.93091.25570.81181.41680.82660.87350.87011.0334
AQI 1.22664.5832.54240.57161.43790.93151.02681.22270.82850.9342
SGI 1.60660.86450.49521.84510.96230.87521.02151.14140.93571.0154
DEPI 0.71871.1071.02451.61491.01520.88151.04081.12080.95471.0832
SGAI 0.65441.28071.4640.60911.31181.00610.88951.01541.00020.9262
LVGI 0.81161.02840.61972.51220.6751.53950.97740.92450.87421.0075
TATA -0.1685-0.0855-0.1192-0.0051-0.15830.0077-0.1315-0.1074-0.1233-0.0082
M-score -2.94-1.61-2.48-1.54-3.51-1.73-3.35-2.92-3.24-2.40

Trio-Tech International Quarterly Data

Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16Sep16Dec16Mar17
DSRI 0.87681.03810.97571.00520.91881.10061.10381.00920.95120.863
GMI 0.84720.85050.87010.83330.90981.01541.03341.0931.07290.9849
AQI 1.1671.02580.82850.79690.80530.8890.93420.95020.97010.8587
SGI 1.01790.98670.93570.96880.96540.97471.01541.05111.09091.0786
DEPI 1.01111.00790.95470.93620.98971.09071.08321.11751.03380.9762
SGAI 1.02941.04581.00020.98210.98890.94210.92620.9110.92070.9747
LVGI 0.90980.87760.87420.93580.91710.99441.00750.95081.00460.9689
TATA -0.0916-0.0801-0.1233-0.1309-0.1061-0.0806-0.0082-0.0602-0.0815-0.0566
M-score -2.99-2.87-3.24-3.27-3.18-2.80-2.40-2.63-2.78-2.85
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