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# Sloan Ratio %

: 0.00% (As of . 20)
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Richard Sloan from the University of Michigan was first to document what is referred to as the "accrual anomaly". His 1996 paper found that shares of companies with small or negative accruals vastly outperform (+10%) those of companies with large ones.

's Sloan Ratio for the quarter that ended in . 20 was 0.00%.

As of . 20, has a Sloan Ratio of 0.00%, indicating the company is in the safe zone and there is no funny business with accruals.

## Sloan Ratio % Historical Data

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

Annual Data
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Sloan Ratio %

 Semi-Annual Data Sloan Ratio %

## Sloan Ratio % Calculation

Earnings contain a lot of non cash earnings which is called accruals. The Sloan ratio is a way to identify firms with low non-cash or accrual-derived earnings relative to their cash flow.

's Sloan Ratio for the fiscal year that ended in . 20 is calculated as

 Sloan Ratio = (Net Income (A: . 20 ) - Cash Flow from Operations (A: . 20 ) - Cash Flow from Investing (A: . 20 )) / Total Assets (A: . 20 ) = ( - - ) / = %

's Sloan Ratio for the quarter that ended in . 20 is calculated as

 Sloan Ratio = (Net Income (TTM) - Cash Flow from Operations (TTM}) - Cash Flow from Investing (TTM)) / Total Assets (Q: . 20 ) = ( - - ) / = %

does not have enough years/quarters to calculate the Net Income, Cash Flow from Investing, and Cash Flow from Investing for the trailing twelve months (TTM) ended in . 20.

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

(:) Sloan Ratio % Explanation

A former University of Michigan researcher, Richard Sloan's 1996 paper found that shares of companies with small or negative accruals vastly outperform (+10%) those of companies with large ones. In fact, for the 40-year period between 1962 and 2001, buying the lowest accrual companies and shorting the highest accrual companies resulted in an average annual compounded return of 18%, more than double the S&P 500's 7.4% annual return over the same period.

According to How to Beat the Market with the Sloan Ratio:

If the Sloan Ratio is between -10% and 10%, the company is in the safe zone and there is no funny business with accruals.

If the Sloan Ratio is less than between -25% and -10% on the negative side, and between 10% and 25% on the positive side, this is a warning stage of accrual build up.

If the Sloan Ratio is less than -25% or greater than 25%, and this ratio is consistent over several quarters or even years, be careful. Earnings are highly likely to be made up of accruals.

As of . 20, has a Sloan Ratio of 0.00%, indicating the company is in the safe zone and there is no funny business with accruals.