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Research Frontiers WACC %

:6.63% (As of Today)
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As of today (2022-01-21), Research Frontiers's weighted average cost of capital is 6.63%. Research Frontiers's ROIC % is -125.22% (calculated using TTM income statement data). Research Frontiers earns returns that do not match up to its cost of capital. It will destroy value as it grows.


Research Frontiers WACC % Historical Data

The historical data trend for Research Frontiers's WACC % can be seen below:

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

* Premium members only.

Research Frontiers Annual Data
Trend Dec11 Dec12 Dec13 Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17 Dec18 Dec19 Dec20
WACC %
Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 1.84 3.40 4.18 9.79 8.23

Research Frontiers Quarterly Data
Dec16 Mar17 Jun17 Sep17 Dec17 Mar18 Jun18 Sep18 Dec18 Mar19 Jun19 Sep19 Dec19 Mar20 Jun20 Sep20 Dec20 Mar21 Jun21 Sep21
WACC % Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 7.89 8.23 8.24 7.47 6.97

Competitive Comparison

For the Electronic Components subindustry, Research Frontiers's WACC %, along with its competitors' market caps and WACC % data, can be viewed below:

* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap. Note that "N/A" values will not show up in the chart.

   

Research Frontiers WACC % Distribution

For the Hardware industry and Technology sector, Research Frontiers's WACC % distribution charts can be found below:

* The bar in red indicates where Research Frontiers's WACC % falls into.



Research Frontiers WACC % Calculation

The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is the rate that a company is expected to pay on average to all its security holders to finance its assets. The WACC is commonly referred to as the firm's cost of capital. Generally speaking, a company's assets are financed by debt and equity. WACC is the average of the costs of these sources of financing, each of which is weighted by its respective use in the given situation. By taking a weighted average, we can see how much interest the company has to pay for every dollar it finances.

WACC=E/(E + D)*Cost of Equity+D/(E + D)*Cost of Debt*(1 - Tax Rate)

1. Weights:
Generally speaking, a company's assets are financed by debt and equity. We need to calculate the weight of equity and the weight of debt.
The market value of equity (E) is also called "Market Cap". As of today, Research Frontiers's market capitalization (E) is $48.109 Mil.
The market value of debt is typically difficult to calculate, therefore, GuruFocus uses book value of debt (D) to do the calculation. It is simplified by adding the latest two-year average Short-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation and Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation together. As of Sep. 2021, Research Frontiers's latest two-year average Short-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $0.1645 Mil and its latest two-year average Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $0.7295 Mil. The total Book Value of Debt (D) is $0.894 Mil.
a) weight of equity = E / (E + D) = 48.109 / (48.109 + 0.894) = 0.9818
b) weight of debt = D / (E + D) = 0.894 / (48.109 + 0.894) = 0.0182

2. Cost of Equity:
GuruFocus uses Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) to calculate the required rate of return. The formula is:
Cost of Equity = Risk-Free Rate of Return + Beta of Asset * (Expected Return of the Market - Risk-Free Rate of Return)
a) GuruFocus uses 10-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rate as the risk-free rate. It is updated daily. The current risk-free rate is 1.83000000%. Please go to Economic Indicators page for more information. Please note that we use the 10-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rate of the country/region where the company is headquartered. If the data for that country/region is not available, then we will use the 10-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rate of the United States as default.
b) Beta is the sensitivity of the expected excess asset returns to the expected excess market returns. Research Frontiers's beta is 0.82.
c) (Expected Return of the Market - Risk-Free Rate of Return) is also called market premium. GuruFocus requires market premium to be 6%.
Cost of Equity = 1.83000000% + 0.82 * 6% = 6.75%

3. Cost of Debt:
GuruFocus uses last fiscal year end Interest Expense divided by the latest two-year average debt to get the simplified cost of debt.
As of Dec. 2020, Research Frontiers's interest expense (positive number) was $0 Mil. Its total Book Value of Debt (D) is $0.894 Mil.
Cost of Debt = 0 / 0.894 = 0%.

4. Multiply by one minus Average Tax Rate:
GuruFocus uses the latest two-year average tax rate to do the calculation. The calculated average tax rate is limited to between 0% and 100%. If the calculated average tax rate is higher than 100%, it is set to 100%. If the calculated average tax rate is less than 0%, it is set to 0%.
The latest Two-year Average Tax Rate is 0%.

Research Frontiers's Weighted Average Cost Of Capital (WACC) for Today is calculated as:

WACC=E / (E + D)*Cost of Equity+D / (E + D)*Cost of Debt*(1 - Tax Rate)
=0.9818*6.75%+0.0182*0%*(1 - 0%)
=6.63%

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.


Research Frontiers  (NAS:REFR) WACC % Explanation

Because it costs money to raise capital. A firm that generates higher ROIC % than it costs the company to raise the capital needed for that investment is earning excess returns. A firm that expects to continue generating positive excess returns on new investments in the future will see its value increase as growth increases, whereas a firm that earns returns that do not match up to its cost of capital will destroy value as it grows.

As of today, Research Frontiers's weighted average cost of capital is 6.63%. Research Frontiers's ROIC % is -125.22% (calculated using TTM income statement data). Research Frontiers earns returns that do not match up to its cost of capital. It will destroy value as it grows.


Be Aware

1. GuruFocus uses book value of debt (D) to do the calculation. It is simplified by adding latest two-year average Short-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation and Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation together.

2. The WACC formula discussed above does not include Preferred Stock. Please adjust if preferred stock is considered.

3. (Expected Return of the Market - Risk-Free Rate of Return) is also called market premium. GuruFocus requires market premium to be 6%.

4. GuruFocus uses last fiscal year end Interest Expense divided by the latest two-year average debt to get the simplified cost of debt.


Related Terms

Research Frontiers Business Description

Research Frontiers logo
Industry
Technology » Hardware NAICS : 334419 SIC : 3679
Traded in Other Exchanges
Address
240 Crossways Park Drive, Woodbury, NY, USA, 11797-2033
Research Frontiers Inc is engaged in the development and marketing of technology and devices to control the flow of light. The company develops and licenses its patented suspended particle device (SPD-Smart) light-control technology to other companies that manufacture and market the SPD-Smart chemical emulsion, the light-control film made from the chemical emulsion, the light-control panels made by laminating the film, electronics to power end-products incorporating the film, or lamination services for, and the end-products. The company's revenue source comes from the licensing of technology.
Executives
Douglas Family Trust 10 percent owner, other: 13(d)(3) group 125 E. SIR FRANCIS DRAKE BLVD. SUITE 400 LARKSPUR CA 94939
James & Jean Douglas Irrevocable Descendants Trust 10 percent owner, other: 13(d)(3) group 125 E. SIR FRANCIS DRAKE BLVD. SUITE 400 LARKSPUR CA 94939
Douglas Kevin 10 percent owner, other: 13(d)(3) group 125 E. SIR FRANCIS DRAKE BLVD. SUITE 400 LARKSPUR CA 94939
Settle William Graham director 6003 COBRIDGE SQUARE RALEIGH NC 27609
Lapointe Michael R officer: VP-Marketing PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> Ownership Information: LAPOINTE MICHAEL R a.header:link {color: #3b4fae; font-weight: bold; text-decoration: underline;} a.header:visited {color: #3b4fae; font-weight: bold; text-decoration: underline;} a.header:hover {color: #191970;}
Harary Joseph M director, officer: President and CEO PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> Ownership Information: HARARY JOSEPH M a.header:link {color: #3b4fae; font-weight: bold; text-decoration: underline;} a.header:visited {color: #3b4fae; font-weight: bold; text-decoration: underline;} a.header:hover {color: #191970;}
Van Voorhees Seth officer: CFO & VP-Business Development 12 HARVEY DRIVE SHORT HILLS NJ 07078
Daigle Darryl director 3213 WYTCHWOOD DRIVE MORGAN CITY LA 70380
Kaganowicz Alexander director 1217 CARLLS STRAIGHT PATH DIX HILLS NY 11746
Grimes Gregory George director 24 FIFTH AVENUE APT. 1530 NEW YORK NY 10011
Slovak Steven Michael officer: Vice President-Technology 240 CROSSWAYS PARK DRIVE WOODBURY NY 11797
Saxe Robert L director, officer: Chairman of the Board PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> Ownership Information: SAXE ROBERT L a.header:link {color: #3b4fae; font-weight: bold; text-decoration: underline;} a.header:visited {color: #3b4fae; font-weight: bold; text-decoration: underline;} a.header:hover {color: #191970;}
Keen Victor F director C/O RESEARCH FRONTIERS INC. 240 CROSSWAYS PARK DRIVE WOODBURY NY 11797
Guthrie Marion Philip director THREE LINCOLN CENTRE 5430 LBJ FWY., SUITE 1480 DALLAS TX 75240
Derby Jack director 399 BOYLSTON STREET BOSTON MA 02117

Research Frontiers Headlines

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