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3M Co (FRA:MMM)
Piotroski F-Score
7 (As of Today)

Good Sign:

Piotroski F-Score of 7 is 7, indicating very healthy situation.

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 8 or 9
Bad or low score = 0 or 1

3M Co has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

FRA:MMM' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 3   Max: 9
Current: 7

3
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of 3M Co was 9. The lowest was 3. And the median was 6.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar14) TTM:Last Year (Mar13) TTM:
Net Income was 874.004344678 + 809.838472834 + 901.759530792 + 914.438502674 = €3,500 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 790.731354091 + 1463.28928047 + 843.841642229 + 1282.65851795 = €4,381 Mil.
Revenue was 5670.52860246 + 5557.26872247 + 5803.51906158 + 5922.07792208 = €22,953 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2751.62925416 + 2638.03230543 + 2762.46334311 + 2856.3789152 = €11,009 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Mar13) was €26,096 Mil.
Total Assets was €24,292 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was €3,187 Mil.
Total Current Assets was €9,241 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was €5,395 Mil.
Net Income was 865.797546012 + 745.112781955 + 895.142636854 + 949.552481692 = €3,456 Mil.

Revenue was 5854.29447853 + 5554.13533835 + 5780.26214341 + 6130.18714402 = €23,319 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2810.58282209 + 2553.38345865 + 2746.33770239 + 2981.28559805 = €11,092 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Mar12) was €24,328 Mil.
Total Assets was €26,096 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was €3,730 Mil.
Total Current Assets was €10,625 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was €4,553 Mil.

Profitability

Q1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

3M Co's current net income was 3,500. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

3M Co's current cash flow from operations was 4,381. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income/Total Assets at the beginning of this year (Mar13)
=3500.04085098/26095.8588957
=0.13412246

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income/Total Assets at the beginning of last year (Mar12)
=3455.60544651/24327.5075988
=0.14204519

3M Co's return on assets of this year was 0.13412246. 3M Co's return on assets of last year was 0.14204519. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Q4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA =< ROA.

3M Co's current net income was 3,500. 3M Co's current cash flow from operations was 4,381. ==> 4,381 > 3,500 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Q5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=3186.8211441/24291.8175235
=0.13118908

Gearing (Last Year)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=3730.06134969/26095.8588957
=0.14293691

3M Co's gearing of this year was 0.13118908. 3M Co's gearing of last year was 0.14293691. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Q6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=9241.12961622/5394.64156408
=1.71302013

Current Ratio (Last Year)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=10625/4552.91411043
=2.3336702

3M Co's current ratio of this year was 1.71302013. 3M Co's current ratio of last year was 2.3336702. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Q7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

3M Co's number of shares in issue this year was 674.5. 3M Co's number of shares in issue last year was 702.1. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Q8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=11008.5038179/22953.3943086
=0.47960244

Gross Margin (Last Year)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=11091.5895812/23318.8791043
=0.47564849

3M Co's gross margin of this year was 0.47960244. 3M Co's gross margin of last year was 0.47564849. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Q9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the beginning of this year (Mar13)
=22953.3943086/26095.8588957
=0.87957995

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the beginning of last year (Mar12)
=23318.8791043/24327.5075988
=0.95853959

3M Co's asset turnover of this year was 0.87957995. 3M Co's asset turnover of last year was 0.95853959. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score=Q1+Q2+Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6+Q7+Q8+Q9
=1+1+0+1+1+0+1+1+0
=6

Good or high score = 8 or 9

Bad or low score = 0 or 1

3M Co has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

3M Co Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 1110001000
Q4 1101111111
Q5 1010011001
Q6 0001010100
Q7 0111110111
Q8 1100011011
Q9 1100101000
F-score 7755577556

3M Co Quarterly Data

Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 0111000001
Q4 1111111111
Q5 1010011110
Q6 1100000000
Q7 1111111111
Q8 0011110111
Q9 1110000001
F-score 6565575670
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