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Novo Nordisk A/S (NYSE:NVO)
Piotroski F-Score
7 (As of Today)

Good Sign:

Piotroski F-Score of 7 is 7, indicating very healthy situation.

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Novo Nordisk A/S has an F-score of 8. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.

NVO' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 2   Max: 9
Current: 7

2
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Novo Nordisk A/S was 9. The lowest was 2. And the median was 8.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jun16) TTM:Last Year (Jun15) TTM:
Net Income was 1261.60699505 + 1205.0196994 + 1411.48896784 + 1505.51276242 = $5,384 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1819.19424504 + 1476.57960018 + 1115.90481593 + 2189.54840659 = $6,601 Mil.
Revenue was 4032.08572246 + 4213.62906756 + 4062.34138477 + 4147.25872225 = $16,455 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3453.12805695 + 3541.22282212 + 3430.26901144 + 3536.32381815 = $13,961 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Jun15)
to the end of this year (Jun16) was
(12234.8781222 + 12821.4968321 + 13395.4472494 + 12296.3007196 + 13331.6719529) / 5 = $12815.9589752 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Jun15) was $12,235 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $7,948 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,272 Mil.
Net Income was 1125.40471285 + 1081.83791486 + 1432.25918728 + 1255.34155883 = $4,895 Mil.

Revenue was 3852.17376249 + 4073.66903614 + 3654.61031992 + 4071.47156184 = $15,652 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3258.99890922 + 3411.0453845 + 3092.78649534 + 3490.8215468 = $13,254 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Jun14)
to the end of last year (Jun15) was
(11607.6994586 + 12341.8806378 + 12768.9682027 + 11233.1409345 + 12234.8781222) / 5 = $12037.3134712 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Jun14) was $11,608 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $7,123 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,807 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Novo Nordisk A/S's current net income (TTM) was 5,384. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Novo Nordisk A/S's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 6,601. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Jun15)
=5383.62842472/12234.8781222
=0.44002305

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Jun14)
=4894.84337383/11607.6994586
=0.42168936

Novo Nordisk A/S's return on assets of this year was 0.44002305. Novo Nordisk A/S's return on assets of last year was 0.42168936. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Novo Nordisk A/S's current net income (TTM) was 5,384. Novo Nordisk A/S's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 6,601. ==> 6,601 > 5,384 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Jun16)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Jun15 to Jun16
=0/12815.9589752
=0

Gearing (Last Year: Jun15)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Jun14 to Jun15
=0/12037.3134712
=0

Novo Nordisk A/S's gearing of this year was 0. Novo Nordisk A/S's gearing of last year was 0. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Jun16)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=7948.34617127/6272.16432563
=1.26724138

Current Ratio (Last Year: Jun15)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=7122.63015348/5806.9515498
=1.22656959

Novo Nordisk A/S's current ratio of this year was 1.26724138. Novo Nordisk A/S's current ratio of last year was 1.22656959. ==> This year's current ratio is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Novo Nordisk A/S's number of shares in issue this year was 2545.4. Novo Nordisk A/S's number of shares in issue last year was 2594.1. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=13960.9437087/16455.314897
=0.84841547

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=13253.6523359/15651.9246804
=0.8467746

Novo Nordisk A/S's gross margin of this year was 0.84841547. Novo Nordisk A/S's gross margin of last year was 0.8467746. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Jun15)
=16455.314897/12234.8781222
=1.34495127

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Jun14)
=15651.9246804/11607.6994586
=1.34840885

Novo Nordisk A/S's asset turnover of this year was 1.34495127. Novo Nordisk A/S's asset turnover of last year was 1.34840885. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+0
=8

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Novo Nordisk A/S has an F-score of 8. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Novo Nordisk A/S Annual Data

Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1111111101
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 1110111111
Question 6 1101000000
Question 7 1111111111
Question 8 1111111111
Question 9 1001011101
F-score 9878788868

Novo Nordisk A/S Quarterly Data

Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1110011111
Question 4 0011111111
Question 5 1111111111
Question 6 0100000011
Question 7 1111111111
Question 8 1111111111
Question 9 1010001110
F-score 7786678898
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