Switch to:
AK Steel Holding Corp (NYSE:AKS)
Beneish M-Score
-2.09 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

AK Steel Holding Corp has a M-score of -2.09 signals that the company is a manipulator.

AKS' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -4.27   Max: -0.46
Current: -2.09

-4.27
-0.46

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of AK Steel Holding Corp was -0.46. The lowest was -4.27. And the median was -2.50.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of AK Steel Holding Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.1459+0.528 * 0.8864+0.404 * 1.0274+0.892 * 1.0087+0.115 * 0.9375
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.5972+4.679 * 0.0651-0.327 * 1.2211
=-2.09

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jun14) TTM:Last Year (Jun13) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $596 Mil.
Revenue was 1530.8 + 1383.5 + 1464.8 + 1331.3 = $5,710 Mil.
Gross Profit was 113.9 + 47.9 + 140.9 + 108.9 = $412 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,506 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,807 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,805 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $210 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $218 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $883 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,948 Mil.
Net Income was -17.1 + -86.1 + 35.2 + -31.7 = $-100 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -3 + -1.9 + -2.9 + -2.8 = $-11 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -206.1 + -125 + 113.5 + -119.2 = $-337 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $516 Mil.
Revenue was 1404.5 + 1369.8 + 1423.1 + 1463.5 = $5,661 Mil.
Gross Profit was 95.3 + 117.5 + 70.4 + 78.5 = $362 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,356 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,773 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,939 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $210 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $361 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $883 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,415 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(596.2 / 5710.4) / (515.8 / 5660.9)
=0.104406 / 0.09111625
=1.1459

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(47.9 / 5660.9) / (113.9 / 5710.4)
=0.06389443 / 0.07207901
=0.8864

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (1506 + 1805.3) / 3806.6) / (1 - (1356.2 + 1938.7) / 3772.7)
=0.13011611 / 0.1266467
=1.0274

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=5710.4 / 5660.9
=1.0087

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(209.9 / (209.9 + 1938.7)) / (210 / (210 + 1805.3))
=0.09769152 / 0.10420285
=0.9375

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(217.6 / 5710.4) / (361.2 / 5660.9)
=0.03810591 / 0.06380611
=0.5972

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((1948.2 + 882.5) / 3806.6) / ((1414.7 + 882.9) / 3772.7)
=0.74362949 / 0.60900681
=1.2211

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(-99.7 - -10.6 - -336.8) / 3806.6
=0.0651

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

AK Steel Holding Corp has a M-score of -2.09 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

AK Steel Holding Corp Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
DSRI 1.22730.83241.13750.83950.63771.84790.71211.07830.91561.1805
GMI 0.30111.10421.13450.6561.02611.87961.47340.81711.00250.8008
AQI 0.76310.95720.84570.89410.97331.18521.14681.25950.50821.0929
SGI 1.29091.08241.07471.15391.09160.53331.4641.08370.91740.9388
DEPI 1.01351.03520.95470.94010.98610.95131.03821.12550.89890.9397
SGAI 0.65640.93280.92740.93260.91651.6160.72312.1870.82510.5975
LVGI 0.86561.08021.00860.84320.93341.0791.13321.12511.41861.138
TATA 0.0657-0.02940.0131-0.0536-0.0172-0.03330.00270.0068-0.19540.018
M-score -2.06-2.67-2.21-2.91-2.77-1.87-2.00-2.52-3.86-2.33

AK Steel Holding Corp Quarterly Data

Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14
DSRI 0.96590.87191.01040.91560.88341.02111.0331.18051.00261.1459
GMI 0.68340.63230.91561.00250.92031.03580.89430.80081.01120.8864
AQI 1.29310.69080.71870.50820.51331.1051.0111.09291.0891.0274
SGI 1.0410.96890.94810.91740.90610.92170.91840.93880.96361.0087
DEPI 1.01920.95140.99480.89890.93930.95760.9230.93970.93810.9375
SGAI 2.36812.53182.70270.79580.7940.78240.77470.59750.61350.5972
LVGI 1.13181.33041.36621.41861.31361.07781.09361.1381.18551.2211
TATA -0.0075-0.2027-0.1978-0.1954-0.2316-0.0771-0.05620.0180.03050.0651
M-score -2.83-4.27-4.01-3.86-4.07-2.82-2.84-2.33-2.33-2.09
Get WordPress Plugins for easy affiliate links on Stock Tickers and Guru Names | Earn affiliate commissions by embedding GuruFocus Charts
GuruFocus Affiliate Program: Earn up to $400 per referral. ( Learn More)
Free 7-day Trial
FEEDBACK