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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Black Hills Corporation has a M-score of signals that the company is a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Black Hills Corporation was 0.35. The lowest was -3.53. And the median was -2.60.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Black Hills Corporation for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 *||+||0.528 *||+||0.404 *||+||0.892 *||+||0.115 *|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 *||+||4.679 *||-||0.327 *|
|This Year (Dec13) TTM:||Last Year (Dec12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $179 Mil.|
Revenue was 355.448 + 259.907 + 279.826 + 380.671 = $1,276 Mil.
Gross Profit was 202.149 + 188.404 + 180.654 + 212.498 = $784 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $345 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,875 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,990 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $141 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $378 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,397 Mil.
Net Income was 18.123 + 23.124 + 30.518 + 43.197 = $115 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 1.435 + 3.894 + 19.719 + 8.135 = $33 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 72.863 + 54.381 + 88.153 + 109.232 = $325 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $164 Mil.
Revenue was 318.862 + 246.808 + 242.363 + 365.851 = $1,174 Mil.
Gross Profit was 195.013 + 184.226 + 178.911 + 208.668 = $767 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $405 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,729 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,743 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $155 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $735 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $939 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(179.033 / 1275.852)||/||(163.698 / 1173.884)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(188.404 / 1173.884)||/||(202.149 / 1275.852)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (345.288 + 2990.297) / 3875.178)||/||(1 - (405.106 + 2742.749) / 3729.471)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(154.632 / (154.632 + 2742.749))||/||(141.217 / (141.217 + 2990.297))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 1275.852)||/||(0 / 1173.884)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1396.948 + 378.394) / 3875.178)||/||((938.877 + 734.889) / 3729.471)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(114.962 - 33.183||-||324.629)||/||3875.178|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Black Hills Corporation has a M-score of signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Black Hills Corporation Annual Data
Black Hills Corporation Quarterly Data