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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Carnival Corp was 10.14. The lowest was -3.24. And the median was -2.45.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Carnival Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.2445||+||0.528 * 0.8725||+||0.404 * 0.977||+||0.892 * 1.0247||+||0.115 * 0.9644|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0363||+||4.679 * -0.052||-||0.327 * 1.008|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Feb15) TTM:||Last Year (Feb14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $329 Mil.|
Revenue was 3531 + 3718 + 4947 + 3633 = $15,829 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1196 + 1221 + 2193 + 1068 = $5,678 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,426 Mil.
Total Assets was $38,714 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $32,294 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,631 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,061 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7,412 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,944 Mil.
Net Income was 49 + -102 + 1247 + 106 = $1,300 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -159 + -288 + 16 + 22 = $-409 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 771 + 637 + 1120 + 1196 = $3,724 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $258 Mil.
Revenue was 3585 + 3658 + 4726 + 3479 = $15,448 Mil.
Gross Profit was 997 + 1037 + 1809 + 992 = $4,835 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,645 Mil.
Total Assets was $39,905 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $32,991 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,604 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,941 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,688 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7,992 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(329 / 15829)||/||(258 / 15448)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1221 / 15448)||/||(1196 / 15829)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1426 + 32294) / 38714)||/||(1 - (1645 + 32991) / 39905)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1604 / (1604 + 32991))||/||(1631 / (1631 + 32294))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2061 / 15829)||/||(1941 / 15448)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((6944 + 7412) / 38714)||/||((7992 + 6688) / 39905)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1300 - -409||-||3724)||/||38714|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Carnival Corp has a M-score of -2.57 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Carnival Corp Annual Data
Carnival Corp Quarterly Data