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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Encana Corp was 19.02. The lowest was -4.75. And the median was -2.66.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Encana Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.5943||+||0.528 * 0.9982||+||0.404 * 1.1531||+||0.892 * 1.0513||+||0.115 * 1.0652|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.5839||+||4.679 * -0.1231||-||0.327 * 0.9327|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $751 Mil.|
Revenue was 830 + 1249 + 2254 + 2285 = $6,618 Mil.
Gross Profit was 216 + 580 + 1337 + 1234 = $3,367 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,097 Mil.
Total Assets was $19,043 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $13,329 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,787 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $283 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,807 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,112 Mil.
Net Income was -1610 + -1707 + 198 + 2807 = $-312 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 84 + -2571 + -241 + 3024 = $296 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 298 + 482 + 261 + 696 = $1,737 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,202 Mil.
Revenue was 1588 + 1892 + 1423 + 1392 = $6,295 Mil.
Gross Profit was 835 + 1049 + 622 + 691 = $3,197 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,574 Mil.
Total Assets was $18,722 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $11,064 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,594 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $461 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,226 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,121 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(751 / 6618)||/||(1202 / 6295)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(580 / 6295)||/||(216 / 6618)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2097 + 13329) / 19043)||/||(1 - (4574 + 11064) / 18722)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1594 / (1594 + 11064))||/||(1787 / (1787 + 13329))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(283 / 6618)||/||(461 / 6295)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((6112 + 1807) / 19043)||/||((6121 + 2226) / 18722)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-312 - 296||-||1737)||/||19043|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Encana Corp has a M-score of -3.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Encana Corp Annual Data
Encana Corp Quarterly Data