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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Waters Corp was 9.93. The lowest was -2.97. And the median was -2.56.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Waters Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0054||+||0.528 * 0.9974||+||0.404 * 0.8901||+||0.892 * 1.2159||+||0.115 * 1.0287|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9459||+||4.679 * -0.0213||-||0.327 * 1.0271|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was €430 Mil.|
Revenue was 538.520150555 + 446.028691081 + 440.826873385 + 425.394068188 = €1,851 Mil.
Gross Profit was 320.109244469 + 261.760670053 + 254.863227301 + 250.538667652 = €1,087 Mil.
Total Current Assets was €2,950 Mil.
Total Assets was €3,919 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was €306 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was €82 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was €449 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was €518 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was €1,371 Mil.
Net Income was 138.670705958 + 103.609551813 + 94.1432771986 + 88.7563522129 = €425 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = €0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 141.054805839 + 123.935667825 + 100.649558941 + 142.834703871 = €508 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was €352 Mil.
Revenue was 473.536090835 + 382.684100256 + 354.604401266 + 311.26310462 = €1,522 Mil.
Gross Profit was 284.469586375 + 225.764724141 + 206.041068669 + 175.539729593 = €892 Mil.
Total Current Assets was €2,285 Mil.
Total Assets was €3,142 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was €261 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was €72 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was €390 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was €471 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was €1,004 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(429.922886257 / 1850.76978321)||/||(351.675587997 / 1522.08769698)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(261.760670053 / 1522.08769698)||/||(320.109244469 / 1850.76978321)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2950.08996603 + 306.026806206) / 3918.73404939)||/||(1 - (2284.70721817 + 260.813463098) / 3142.48986212)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(72.0429092909 / (72.0429092909 + 260.813463098))||/||(81.5467684484 / (81.5467684484 + 306.026806206))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(449.141180817 / 1850.76978321)||/||(390.491237833 / 1522.08769698)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1370.62976223 + 517.833471036) / 3918.73404939)||/||((1003.61962693 + 470.791565288) / 3142.48986212)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(425.179887183 - 0||-||508.474736476)||/||3918.73404939|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Waters Corp has a M-score of -2.42 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Waters Corp Annual Data
Waters Corp Quarterly Data