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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Layne Christensen Co was -1.44. The lowest was -3.93. And the median was -2.83.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Layne Christensen Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8441||+||0.528 * 0.9786||+||0.404 * 0.9627||+||0.892 * 0.908||+||0.115 * 1.1077|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0151||+||4.679 * -0.0303||-||0.327 * 1.0647|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Apr16) TTM:||Last Year (Apr15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $90.8 Mil.|
Revenue was 159.739 + 159.243 + 173.179 + 176.317 = $668.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 29.37 + 26.586 + 30.238 + 25.068 = $111.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $283.7 Mil.
Total Assets was $483.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $110.8 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $32.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $106.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $155.6 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $159.8 Mil.
Net Income was -8.803 + -16.623 + -3.442 + -18.154 = $-47.0 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.916 + -12.951 + 0.095 + -1.348 = $-13.3 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -5.577 + 1.478 + 1.345 + -16.367 = $-19.1 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $118.4 Mil.
Revenue was 174.271 + 178.711 + 199.112 + 184.1 = $736.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 31.04 + 23.847 + 36.144 + 28.882 = $119.9 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $312.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $566.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $146.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $48.3 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $115.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $185.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $161.8 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(90.761 / 668.478)||/||(118.422 / 736.194)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(119.913 / 736.194)||/||(111.262 / 668.478)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (283.686 + 110.791) / 483.067)||/||(1 - (312.544 + 146.074) / 566.548)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(48.258 / (48.258 + 146.074))||/||(32.013 / (32.013 + 110.791))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(106.163 / 668.478)||/||(115.174 / 736.194)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((159.797 + 155.611) / 483.067)||/||((161.775 + 185.659) / 566.548)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-47.022 - -13.288||-||-19.121)||/||483.067|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Layne Christensen Co has a M-score of -2.89 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Layne Christensen Co Annual Data
Layne Christensen Co Quarterly Data