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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Layne Christensen Co was -1.44. The lowest was -3.93. And the median was -2.78.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Layne Christensen Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9748||+||0.528 * 0.965||+||0.404 * 1.1203||+||0.892 * 0.9745||+||0.115 * 0.8167|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.848||+||4.679 * -0.1344||-||0.327 * 1.1937|
|This Year (Oct14) TTM:||Last Year (Oct13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $110.0 Mil.|
Revenue was 222.906 + 210.363 + 191.24 + 230.872 = $855.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 37.447 + 31.365 + 29.089 + 41.469 = $139.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $321.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $591.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $164.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $55.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $129.8 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $206.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $131.3 Mil.
Net Income was -4.504 + -55.028 + -27.727 + -14.268 = $-101.5 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.582 + 1.836 + 0.041 + -12.734 = $-11.4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 15.89 + -15.775 + -12.688 + 2.019 = $-10.6 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $115.8 Mil.
Revenue was 201.978 + 221.254 + 226.446 + 228.108 = $877.8 Mil.
Gross Profit was 35.665 + 37.848 + 36.891 + 27.615 = $138.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $336.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $684.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $238.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $62.4 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $157.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $225.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $102.7 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(109.956 / 855.381)||/||(115.758 / 877.786)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(31.365 / 877.786)||/||(37.447 / 855.381)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (321.341 + 164.115) / 591.89)||/||(1 - (336.318 + 238.682) / 684.94)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(62.352 / (62.352 + 238.682))||/||(55.766 / (55.766 + 164.115))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(129.795 / 855.381)||/||(157.068 / 877.786)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((131.332 + 206.889) / 591.89)||/||((102.743 + 225.147) / 684.94)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-101.527 - -11.439||-||-10.554)||/||591.89|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Layne Christensen Co has a M-score of -3.18 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Layne Christensen Co Annual Data
Layne Christensen Co Quarterly Data