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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Layne Christensen Co was -1.44. The lowest was -3.93. And the median was -2.82.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Layne Christensen Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.7732||+||0.528 * 1.0577||+||0.404 * 1.0183||+||0.892 * 1.0991||+||0.115 * 1.0041|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9958||+||4.679 * -0.0851||-||0.327 * 1.1003|
|This Year (Oct15) TTM:||Last Year (Oct14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $93.4 Mil.|
Revenue was 173.179 + 176.317 + 194.363 + 255.744 = $799.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 30.238 + 25.068 + 33.687 + 29.165 = $118.2 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $306.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $518.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $117.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $39.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $121.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $163.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $162.7 Mil.
Net Income was -3.442 + -18.154 + -6.559 + -22.891 = $-51.0 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.095 + -1.348 + 5.817 + 0.812 = $5.4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1.345 + -16.367 + 13.237 + -10.529 = $-12.3 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $110.0 Mil.
Revenue was 199.112 + 184.1 + 174.389 + 169.934 = $727.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 36.144 + 28.882 + 22.658 + 26.027 = $113.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $321.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $591.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $164.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $55.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $110.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $206.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $131.3 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(93.435 / 799.603)||/||(109.956 / 727.535)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(25.068 / 727.535)||/||(30.238 / 799.603)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (306.406 + 117.153) / 518.508)||/||(1 - (321.341 + 164.115) / 591.89)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(55.766 / (55.766 + 164.115))||/||(39.589 / (39.589 + 117.153))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(121.335 / 799.603)||/||(110.863 / 727.535)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((162.712 + 163.308) / 518.508)||/||((131.332 + 206.889) / 591.89)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-51.046 - 5.376||-||-12.314)||/||518.508|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Layne Christensen Co has a M-score of -2.99 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Layne Christensen Co Annual Data
Layne Christensen Co Quarterly Data