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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Meritage Homes Corp was 15.98. The lowest was -8.24. And the median was -1.25.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Meritage Homes Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.847||+||0.528 * 1.0646||+||0.404 * 0.9778||+||0.892 * 1.1609||+||0.115 * 0.9056|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9408||+||4.679 * 0.0669||-||0.327 * 1.0094|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $60 Mil.|
Revenue was 597.766 + 788.656 + 676.81 + 603.299 = $2,667 Mil.
Gross Profit was 103.796 + 157.829 + 131.845 + 118.885 = $512 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $233 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,715 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $35 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $14 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $306 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $268 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,119 Mil.
Net Income was 20.969 + 52.897 + 30.308 + 29.133 = $133 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.126 + 2.576 + -4.119 + -0.033 = $-1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -81.817 + 49.911 + 23.702 + -38.757 = $-47 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $62 Mil.
Revenue was 518.712 + 705.528 + 562.308 + 510.352 = $2,297 Mil.
Gross Profit was 95.641 + 145.523 + 115.055 + 113.62 = $470 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $151 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,366 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $34 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $12 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $280 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $233 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $966 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(60.491 / 2666.531)||/||(61.515 / 2296.9)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(469.839 / 2296.9)||/||(512.355 / 2666.531)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (232.666 + 34.544) / 2714.513)||/||(1 - (150.76 + 33.826) / 2366.458)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(12.312 / (12.312 + 33.826))||/||(14.432 / (14.432 + 34.544))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(305.8 / 2666.531)||/||(279.997 / 2296.9)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1119.393 + 268.172) / 2714.513)||/||((965.75 + 232.649) / 2366.458)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(133.307 - -1.45||-||-46.961)||/||2714.513|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Meritage Homes Corp has a M-score of -2.14 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Meritage Homes Corp Annual Data
Meritage Homes Corp Quarterly Data