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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
VF Corporation has a M-score of -2.51 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of VF Corporation was -1.16. The lowest was -3.73. And the median was -2.52.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of VF Corporation for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0604||+||0.528 * 0.9681||+||0.404 * 0.959||+||0.892 * 1.0496||+||0.115 * 1.0452|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0175||+||4.679 * -0.0283||-||0.327 * 0.8846|
|This Year (Dec13) TTM:||Last Year (Dec12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,360 Mil.|
Revenue was 3290.099 + 3297.269 + 2220.411 + 2611.869 = $11,420 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1585.409 + 1569.125 + 1077.053 + 1256.592 = $5,488 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,883 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,315 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $933 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $253 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,841 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,568 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,427 Mil.
Net Income was 367.667 + 433.761 + 138.274 + 270.417 = $1,210 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -2.302 + -1.25 + -1.512 + 1.039 = $-4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1087.965 + 126.663 + 279.739 + 11.674 = $1,506 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,222 Mil.
Revenue was 3033.26 + 3148.354 + 2141.786 + 2556.455 = $10,880 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1437.748 + 1470.264 + 986.374 + 1167.589 = $5,062 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,450 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,633 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $828 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $238 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,597 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,732 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,429 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1360.443 / 11419.648)||/||(1222.345 / 10879.855)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1569.125 / 10879.855)||/||(1585.409 / 11419.648)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (3882.982 + 932.792) / 10315.443)||/||(1 - (3449.583 + 828.218) / 9633.021)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(237.956 / (237.956 + 828.218))||/||(253.273 / (253.273 + 932.792))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(3841.032 / 11419.648)||/||(3596.708 / 10879.855)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1426.829 + 1568.001) / 10315.443)||/||((1429.166 + 1732.212) / 9633.021)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1210.119 - -4.025||-||1506.041)||/||10315.443|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
VF Corporation has a M-score of -2.51 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
VF Corporation Annual Data
VF Corporation Quarterly Data