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Vonage Holdings Corporation (NYSE:VG)
Beneish M-Score
-2.99 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Vonage Holdings Corporation has a M-score of -2.99 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

VG' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -5.31   Max: 1.38
Current: -2.99

-5.31
1.38

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Vonage Holdings Corporation was 1.38. The lowest was -5.31. And the median was -2.99.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Vonage Holdings Corporation for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.9857+0.528 * 0.977+0.404 * 1.1338+0.892 * 0.9764+0.115 * 0.8694
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.1017+4.679 * -0.0931-0.327 * 1.1523
=-2.99

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Dec13) TTM:Last Year (Dec12) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $19.6 Mil.
Revenue was 211.22 + 203.984 + 204.776 + 209.087 = $829.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 149.142 + 141.567 + 142.032 + 145.028 = $577.8 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $155.1 Mil.
Total Assets was $642.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $52.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $36.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $489.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $194.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $108.5 Mil.
Net Income was 3.588 + 4.207 + 7.447 + 13.047 = $28.3 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.033 + -0.015 + -0.017 + -0.039 = $-0.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 36.089 + 23.55 + 18.852 + 9.752 = $88.2 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $20.4 Mil.
Revenue was 213.711 + 207.584 + 211.916 + 215.903 = $849.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 147.329 + 141.895 + 144.446 + 144.434 = $578.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $159.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $547.4 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $60.5 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $33.3 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $454.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $196.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $27.3 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(19.649 / 829.067) / (20.416 / 849.114)
=0.02370014 / 0.02404389
=0.9857

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(141.567 / 849.114) / (149.142 / 829.067)
=0.68083202 / 0.6968906
=0.977

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (155.14 + 52.243) / 642.749) / (1 - (159.848 + 60.533) / 547.389)
=0.67734995 / 0.597396
=1.1338

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=829.067 / 849.114
=0.9764

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(33.324 / (33.324 + 60.533)) / (36.066 / (36.066 + 52.243))
=0.35505077 / 0.40840684
=0.8694

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(489.354 / 829.067) / (454.908 / 849.114)
=0.59024663 / 0.53574432
=1.1017

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((108.534 + 194.115) / 642.749) / ((27.257 + 196.422) / 547.389)
=0.47086654 / 0.40862896
=1.1523

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(28.289 - -0.104 - 88.243) / 642.749
=-0.0931

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Vonage Holdings Corporation has a M-score of -2.99 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Vonage Holdings Corporation Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
DSRI 0.72681.10840.89120.80990.86121.01481.62460.86140.9857
GMI 0.8781.0160.84320.950.97221.02740.97150.99980.977
AQI 2.53730.83673.2811.49660.98070.61972.9950.90571.1338
SGI 3.37732.25631.36361.08680.98770.99550.98340.97560.9764
DEPI 2.0840.59820.64170.76760.8650.95231.13870.99360.8694
SGAI 1.11990.71040.8570.68150.90440.891.02121.06211.1017
LVGI 2.6250.7811.43771.12751.06821.19730.31630.87971.1523
TATA -0.1593-0.19730.0081-0.1108-0.1018-0.56640.4862-0.152-0.0931
M-score -1.23-2.17-1.54-2.94-3.14-5.311.38-3.35-2.99

Vonage Holdings Corporation Quarterly Data

Sep11Dec11Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13
DSRI 0.95411.62461.06061.0981.29170.86141.66611.73831.36570.9857
GMI 0.96710.97150.98260.99741.00230.99980.98830.9810.97970.977
AQI 0.97232.9953.11732.72442.45230.90570.87320.91910.96831.1338
SGI 0.9790.98340.9880.98870.97570.97560.97220.97110.9770.9764
DEPI 1.12731.13871.15331.06170.98560.99360.96510.99460.8220.8694
SGAI 1.00711.02121.03981.04381.05321.06211.04611.05591.07741.1017
LVGI 1.16020.31630.30820.31880.31610.87970.95870.98631.04081.1523
TATA -0.17480.48620.48710.47530.5149-0.152-0.1506-0.1119-0.1413-0.0931
M-score -3.431.380.930.740.98-3.35-2.65-2.40-2.90-2.99
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