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General Dynamics Corp  (NYSE:GD) Piotroski F-Score: 8 (As of Today)

Good Sign:

Piotroski F-Score of 8 is 8, indicating very healthy situation.

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

General Dynamics Corp has an F-score of 8. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.

NYSE:GD' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 2   Max: 9
Current: 8

2
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of General Dynamics Corp was 9. The lowest was 2. And the median was 6.


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

* Premium members only.

General Dynamics Corp Annual Data

Dec07 Dec08 Dec09 Dec10 Dec11 Dec12 Dec13 Dec14 Dec15 Dec16
Piotroski F-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 4.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00

General Dynamics Corp Quarterly Data

Dec12 Mar13 Jun13 Sep13 Dec13 Mar14 Jun14 Sep14 Dec14 Mar15 Jun15 Sep15 Dec15 Mar16 Jun16 Sep16 Dec16 Mar17 Jun17 Sep17
Piotroski F-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 6.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 8.00

Competitive Comparison
* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap.

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Sep17) TTM:Last Year (Sep16) TTM:
Net Income was 953 + 763 + 749 + 764 = $3,229 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 826 + 533 + 477 + 871 = $2,707 Mil.
Revenue was 8446 + 7441 + 7675 + 7580 = $31,142 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1866 + 1516 + 1561 + 1562 = $6,505 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Sep16)
to the end of this year (Sep17) was
(32668 + 32872 + 33211 + 33793 + 34914) / 5 = $33491.6 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Sep16) was $32,668 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $3,979 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $18,080 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $13,209 Mil.
Net Income was 764 + 641 + 714 + 647 = $2,766 Mil.

Revenue was 7809 + 7476 + 7774 + 7657 = $30,716 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1542 + 1385 + 1512 + 1486 = $5,925 Mil.
Average Net Income from the begining of last year (Sep15)
to the end of last year (Sep16) was
(32980 + 31997 + 31702 + 31769 + 32668) / 5 = $32223.2 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Sep15) was $32,980 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $3,885 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $15,297 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $11,893 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by Total Assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

General Dynamics Corp's current Net Income (TTM) was 3,229. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by Total Assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

General Dynamics Corp's current Cash Flow from Operations (TTM) was 2,707. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year's return on assets (1) to last year's return on assets.

Score 1 if it's higher, 0 if it's lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income/Total Assets(Sep16)
=3229/32668
=0.0988429

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income/Total Assets(Sep15)
=2766/32980
=0.08386901

General Dynamics Corp's return on assets of this year was 0.0988429. General Dynamics Corp's return on assets of last year was 0.08386901. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

General Dynamics Corp's current Net Income (TTM) was 3,229. General Dynamics Corp's current Cash Flow from Operations (TTM) was 2,707. ==> 2,707 <= 3,229 ==> CFROA <= ROA ==> Score 0.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year's gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year's gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Sep17)=Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation/Total Assetsfrom Sep16 to Sep17
=3979/33491.6
=0.11880591

Gearing (Last Year: Sep16)=Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation/Total Assetsfrom Sep15 to Sep16
=3885/32223.2
=0.12056531

General Dynamics Corp's gearing of this year was 0.11880591. General Dynamics Corp's gearing of last year was 0.12056531. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year's current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year's current ratio.

Score 1 if this year's current ratio is higher, 0 if it's lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Sep17)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=18080/13209
=1.36876372

Current Ratio (Last Year: Sep16)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=15297/11893
=1.28621878

General Dynamics Corp's current ratio of this year was 1.36876372. General Dynamics Corp's current ratio of last year was 1.28621878. ==> This year's current ratio is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

General Dynamics Corp's number of shares in issue this year was 303.8. General Dynamics Corp's number of shares in issue last year was 309.7. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year's gross margin (Gross Profit divided by sales) to last year's.

Score 1 if this year's gross margin is higher, 0 if it's lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=6505/31142
=0.2088819

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=5925/30716
=0.19289621

General Dynamics Corp's gross margin of this year was 0.2088819. General Dynamics Corp's gross margin of last year was 0.19289621. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year's asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year's asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year's asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it's lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep16)
=31142/32668
=0.95328762

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep15)
=30716/32980
=0.93135233

General Dynamics Corp's asset turnover of this year was 0.95328762. General Dynamics Corp's asset turnover of last year was 0.93135233. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+1+0+1+1+1+1+1
=8

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

General Dynamics Corp has an F-score of 8. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.

Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


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