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(:) Piotroski F-Score: (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

has an F-score of . It is a bad or low score, which usually implies poor business operation.

Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

Annual Data

 Piotroski F-Score

Semi-Annual Data

 Piotroski F-Score

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

 This Year () TTM: Last Year () TTM: Net Income was \$ Mil. Cash Flow from Operations was \$ Mil. Revenue was \$ Mil. Gross Profit was \$ Mil. Average Total Assets from the begining of this year () to the end of this year () was ( + ) / 2 = \$ Mil. Total Assets at the begining of this year ({FiscalYear0}) was \$ Mil. Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was \$ Mil. Total Current Assets was \$ Mil. Total Current Liabilities was \$ Mil. Net Income was \$ Mil. Revenue was \$ Mil. Gross Profit was \$ Mil. Average Total Assets from the begining of last year () to the end of last year () was ( + ) / 2 = \$ Mil. Total Assets at the begining of last year () was \$ Mil. Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was \$ Mil. Total Current Assets was \$ Mil. Total Current Liabilities was \$ Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by Total Assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

's current Net Income (TTM) was {NetIncome0_f}.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by Total Assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

's current Cash Flow from Operations (TTM) was .

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year's return on assets (1) to last year's return on assets.

Score 1 if it's higher, 0 if it's lower.

 ROA (This Year) = Net Income / Total Assets() = / =

 ROA (Last Year) = Net Income / Total Assets() = / =

's return on assets of this year was . 's return on assets of last year was .

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

's current Net Income (TTM) was . 's current Cash Flow from Operations (TTM) was .

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year's gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year's gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

 Gearing (This Year: ) = Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation / Total Assetsfrom to = / =

 Gearing (Last Year: ) = Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation / Total Assetsfrom to = / =

's gearing of this year was . 's gearing of last year was .

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year's current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year's current ratio.

Score 1 if this year's current ratio is higher, 0 if it's lower

 Current Ratio (This Year: ) = Total Current Assets / Total Current Liabilities = / =

 Current Ratio (Last Year: ) = Total Current Assets / Total Current Liabilities = / =

's current ratio of this year was . 's current ratio of last year was .

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

's number of shares in issue this year was . 's number of shares in issue last year was .

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year's gross margin (Gross Profit divided by sales) to last year's.

Score 1 if this year's gross margin is higher, 0 if it's lower.

 Gross Margin (This Year: TTM) = Gross Profit / Revenue = / =

 Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM) = Gross Profit / Revenue = / =

's gross margin of this year was . 's gross margin of last year was .

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year's asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year's asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year's asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it's lower

 Asset Turnover (This Year) = Revenue / Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year () = / =

 Asset Turnover (Last Year) = Revenue / Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year () = / =

's asset turnover of this year was . 's asset turnover of last year was .

Evaluation

 Piotroski F-Score = Que. 1 + Que. 2 + Que. 3 + Que. 4 + Que. 5 + Que. 6 + Que. 7 + Que. 8 + Que. 9 = + + + + + + + + =

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

has an F-score of . It is a bad or low score, which usually implies poor business operation.

Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.

Related Terms