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Coca-Cola Co  (NYSE:KO) Beneish M-Score: -2.90 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Coca-Cola Co has a M-score of -2.90 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

NYSE:KO' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -2.9   Max: -2.42
Current: -2.9

-2.9
-2.42

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Coca-Cola Co was -2.42. The lowest was -2.90. And the median was -2.66.


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

* Premium members only.

Coca-Cola Co Annual Data

Dec08 Dec09 Dec10 Dec11 Dec12 Dec13 Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17
Beneish M-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -2.54 -2.74 -2.90 -2.59 -2.90

Coca-Cola Co Quarterly Data

Mar13 Jun13 Sep13 Dec13 Mar14 Jun14 Sep14 Dec14 Mar15 Jun15 Sep15 Dec15 Mar16 Jun16 Sep16 Dec16 Mar17 Jun17 Sep17 Dec17
Beneish M-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -2.59 -2.70 -2.76 -2.64 -2.90

Competitive Comparison
* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap.


Calculation

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Altman Z-Score) or business trend (Piotroski F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Coca-Cola Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.1243+0.528 * 0.9697+0.404 * 1.0051+0.892 * 0.8459+0.115 * 1.0804
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.6479+4.679 * -0.0586-0.327 * 1.031
=-2.90

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Dec17) TTM:Last Year (Dec16) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $3,667 Mil.
Revenue was 7512 + 9078 + 9702 + 9118 = $35,410 Mil.
Gross Profit was 4823 + 5683 + 6043 + 5605 = $22,154 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $36,545 Mil.
Total Assets was $87,896 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,203 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,260 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $11,215 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $27,194 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $31,182 Mil.
Net Income was -2752 + 1447 + 1371 + 1182 = $1,248 Mil.
Non-Recurring Items was -356 + -413 + 612 + -438 = $-595 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1077 + 2527 + 2603 + 788 = $6,995 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $3,856 Mil.
Revenue was 9409 + 10633 + 11539 + 10282 = $41,863 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5615 + 6502 + 7068 + 6213 = $25,398 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $34,010 Mil.
Total Assets was $87,270 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $10,635 Mil.
(DDA) was $1,787 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $8,046 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $26,532 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $29,684 Mil.




1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of Revenue in Accounts Receivable in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(3667 / 35410) / (3856 / 41863)
=0.10355832 / 0.09210998
=1.1243

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(25398 / 41863) / (22154 / 35410)
=0.60669326 / 0.62564247
=0.9697

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than Property, Plant and Equipment to Total Assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (36545 + 8203) / 87896) / (1 - (34010 + 10635) / 87270)
=0.49089833 / 0.48842672
=1.0051

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of Revenue in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=35410 / 41863
=0.8459

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(1787 / (1787 + 10635)) / (1260 / (1260 + 8203))
=0.14385767 / 0.13315016
=1.0804

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of c in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(11215 / 35410) / (8046 / 41863)
=0.31671844 / 0.19219836
=1.6479

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to Total Assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((31182 + 27194) / 87896) / ((29684 + 26532) / 87270)
=0.66414854 / 0.6441618
=1.031

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(1248 - -595 - 6995) / 87896
=-0.0586

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Coca-Cola Co has a M-score of -2.90 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


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