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Gartner (NYSE:IT) Beneish M-Score

: -2.71 (As of Today)
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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Good Sign:

Beneish M-Score -2.71 no higher than -1.78, which implies that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.

The historical rank and industry rank for Gartner's Beneish M-Score or its related term are showing as below:

IT' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -2.95   Med: -2.7   Max: -1.66
Current: -2.71

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Gartner was -1.66. The lowest was -2.95. And the median was -2.70.


Gartner Beneish M-Score Historical Data

The historical data trend for Gartner's Beneish M-Score can be seen below:

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

* Premium members only.

Gartner Annual Data
Trend Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17 Dec18 Dec19 Dec20 Dec21 Dec22 Dec23
Beneish M-Score
Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -2.50 -2.95 -2.89 -2.59 -2.71

Gartner Quarterly Data
Mar19 Jun19 Sep19 Dec19 Mar20 Jun20 Sep20 Dec20 Mar21 Jun21 Sep21 Dec21 Mar22 Jun22 Sep22 Dec22 Mar23 Jun23 Sep23 Dec23
Beneish M-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -2.59 -2.56 -2.62 -2.63 -2.71

Competitive Comparison

For the Information Technology Services subindustry, Gartner's Beneish M-Score, along with its competitors' market caps and Beneish M-Score data, can be viewed below:

* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap. Note that "N/A" values will not show up in the chart.


Gartner Beneish M-Score Distribution

For the Software industry and Technology sector, Gartner's Beneish M-Score distribution charts can be found below:

* The bar in red indicates where Gartner's Beneish M-Score falls into.



Gartner Beneish M-Score Calculation

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Altman Z-Score) or business trend (Piotroski F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Gartner for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.9535+0.528 * 1.019+0.404 * 0.9233+0.892 * 1.0787+0.115 * 0.9229
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0094+4.679 * -0.051503-0.327 * 0.9444
=-2.71

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

This Year (Dec23) TTM:Last Year (Dec22) TTM:
Total Receivables was $1,601 Mil.
Revenue was 1586.118 + 1408.784 + 1503.185 + 1408.869 = $5,907 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1056.276 + 957.943 + 1015.767 + 973.73 = $4,004 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,428 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,836 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $630 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $191 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,702 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,778 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $2,962 Mil.
Net Income was 208.631 + 180.009 + 198.043 + 295.783 = $882 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -5.465 + -2.586 + -0.304 + 138.659 = $130 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 224.33 + 330.946 + 435.782 + 164.679 = $1,156 Mil.
Total Receivables was $1,557 Mil.
Revenue was 1504.717 + 1331.868 + 1376.521 + 1262.74 = $5,476 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1029.351 + 915.031 + 951.986 + 885.707 = $3,782 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,786 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,300 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $701 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $192 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,481 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,598 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $3,051 Mil.




1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of Revenue in Total Receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(1601.228 / 5906.956) / (1556.786 / 5475.846)
=0.271075 / 0.284301
=0.9535

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(3782.075 / 5475.846) / (4003.716 / 5906.956)
=0.690683 / 0.677797
=1.019

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than Property, Plant and Equipment to Total Assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (3427.886 + 629.527) / 7835.919) / (1 - (2786.107 + 701.173) / 7299.736)
=0.482203 / 0.522273
=0.9233

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of Revenue in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=5906.956 / 5475.846
=1.0787

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(191.946 / (191.946 + 701.173)) / (191.103 / (191.103 + 629.527))
=0.214916 / 0.232874
=0.9229

Note: If the Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization data is not available, we assume that the depreciation rate is constant and set the Depreciation Index to 1.

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) to Sales in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(2701.542 / 5906.956) / (2480.944 / 5475.846)
=0.457349 / 0.45307
=1.0094

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to Total Assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((2962.102 + 3777.719) / 7835.919) / ((3050.874 + 3597.6) / 7299.736)
=0.860119 / 0.910783
=0.9444

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(882.466 - 130.304 - 1155.737) / 7835.919
=-0.051503

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Gartner has a M-score of -2.71 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.


Gartner Beneish M-Score Related Terms

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Gartner (NYSE:IT) Business Description

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Based in Stamford, Conn., Gartner provides independent research and analysis on information technology and other related technology industries. Its research is delivered to clients' desktops in the form of reports, briefings, and updates. Typical clients are chief information officers and other business executives who help plan companies' IT budgets. Gartner also provides consulting services and hosted nearly 80 IT conferences across the globe in 2007.
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