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Humana Beneish M-Score

: 0.00 (As of Today)
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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

The historical rank and industry rank for Humana's Beneish M-Score or its related term are showing as below:

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Humana was 0.00. The lowest was -59.97. And the median was -2.65.


Humana Beneish M-Score Historical Data

The historical data trend for Humana's Beneish M-Score can be seen below:

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

* Premium members only.

Humana Annual Data
Trend Dec12 Dec13 Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17 Dec18 Dec19 Dec20 Dec21
Beneish M-Score
Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -3.11 -2.40 -2.83 -2.69 -1.79

Humana Quarterly Data
Sep17 Dec17 Mar18 Jun18 Sep18 Dec18 Mar19 Jun19 Sep19 Dec19 Mar20 Jun20 Sep20 Dec20 Mar21 Jun21 Sep21 Dec21 Mar22 Jun22
Beneish M-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -2.19 -1.79 -1.79 -2.06 -

Competitive Comparison

For the Healthcare Plans subindustry, Humana's Beneish M-Score, along with its competitors' market caps and Beneish M-Score data, can be viewed below:

* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap. Note that "N/A" values will not show up in the chart.

   

Humana Beneish M-Score Distribution

For the Healthcare Plans industry and Healthcare sector, Humana's Beneish M-Score distribution charts can be found below:

* The bar in red indicates where Humana's Beneish M-Score falls into.



Humana Beneish M-Score Calculation

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Altman Z-Score) or business trend (Piotroski F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Humana for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * +0.528 * +0.404 * +0.892 * +0.115 *
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * +4.679 * -0.327 *
=

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

This Year (Dec21) TTM:Last Year (Dec20) TTM:
Total Receivables was $1,814 Mil.
Revenue was $83,064 Mil.
Gross Profit was $83,064 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $18,400 Mil.
Total Assets was $44,358 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,073 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $713 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $15,077 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $10,541 Mil.
Net Income was $2,933 Mil.
Gross Profit was $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was $2,262 Mil.
Total Receivables was $1,138 Mil.
Revenue was $77,155 Mil.
Gross Profit was $77,155 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $18,365 Mil.
Total Assets was $34,969 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,371 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $616 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $13,076 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $6,060 Mil.




1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of Revenue in Total Receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(1814 / 83064) / (1138 / 77155)
=0.02183858 / 0.01474953
=

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(77155 / 77155) / (83064 / 83064)
=1 / 1
=

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than Property, Plant and Equipment to Total Assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (18400 + 3073) / 44358) / (1 - (18365 + 2371) / 34969)
=0.51591596 / 0.40701764
=

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of Revenue in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=83064 / 77155
=

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(616 / (616 + 2371)) / (713 / (713 + 3073))
=0.20622698 / 0.18832541
=

Note: If the Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization data is not available, we assume that the depreciation rate is constant and set the Depreciation Index to 1.

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) to Sales in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(0 / 83064) / (0 / 77155)
=0 / 0
=

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to Total Assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((10541 + 15077) / 44358) / ((6060 + 13076) / 34969)
=0.57752829 / 0.54722754
=

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(2933 - 0 - 2262) / 44358
=0.0151

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.


Humana Business Description

Humana logo
Address
500 West Main Street, Louisville, KY, USA, 40202
Humana is one of the largest private health insurers in the U.S. with a focus on administering Medicare Advantage plans. The firm has built a niche specializing in government-sponsored programs, with nearly all its medical membership stemming from individual and group Medicare Advantage, Medicaid, and the military's Tricare program. The firm is also a leader in stand-alone prescription drug plans for seniors enrolled in traditional fee-for-service Medicare. Humana offers employer-based plans primarily for small businesses along with specialty insurance offerings such as dental, vision, and life. Beyond medical insurance, the company provides other healthcare services, including primary-care services, at-home services, and pharmacy benefit management.
Executives
Koeberlein Michael A. officer: SVP, Chief Accting Off & Cont. 500 W MAIN ST. LOUISVILLE KY 40202
Agwunobi, M.d. Andrew C. officer: Seg. President, Home Solutions HUMANA INC. 500 W MAIN STREET LOUISVILLE KY 40202
Feinberg David T director 12525 CHADRON AVENUE HAWTHORNE CA 90250
Schick Susan D. officer: Seg Pres. Grp. & Military Bus. 500 W. MAIN ST. LOUISVILLE KY 40202
Mesquita Jorge S. director C/O KRAFT FOODS INC. THREE LAKES DRIVE NORTHFIELD IL 60093
Klevorn Marcy S director ONE AMERICAN ROAD DEARBORN MI 48126
Bono Raquel C. director 500 W MAIN ST. LOUISVILLE KY 40202
Frederick Wayne A.i. director 500 W MAIN ST. LOUISVILLE KY 40202
Garratt John W director 100 MISSION RIDGE GOODLETTSVILLE TN 37072
Katz Karen director
Diamond Susan M officer: Segment President, Home Bus. 500 W MAIN ST. LOUISVILLE KY 40202
Shrank William H officer: Chief Medical Officer 500 WEST MAIN ST LOUISVILLE KY 40202
Ventura Joseph C officer: Chief Legal Officer & Corp Sec 500 W MAIN STREET LOUISVILLE KY 40202
Agrawal Vishal officer: Chief Strategy Officer 500 W MAIN ST LOUISVILLE KY 40202
Cox Heather officer: Chief Digital & Analytics Off. 804 CARNEGIE CENTER PRINCETON NJ 08540

Humana Headlines

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