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Aflac (AFL) Beneish M-Score : -2.15 (As of May. 23, 2024)


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What is Aflac Beneish M-Score?

Note: Financial institutions were excluded from the sample in Beneish paper when calculating Beneish M-Score. Thus, the prediction might not fit banks and insurance companies.

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Good Sign:

Beneish M-Score -2.15 no higher than -1.78, which implies that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.

The historical rank and industry rank for Aflac's Beneish M-Score or its related term are showing as below:

AFL' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -2.9   Med: -2.6   Max: -2.15
Current: -2.15

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Aflac was -2.15. The lowest was -2.90. And the median was -2.60.


Aflac Beneish M-Score Calculation

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Altman Z-Score) or business trend (Piotroski F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Aflac for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.3323+0.528 * 1+0.404 * 1.0005+0.892 * 0.9838+0.115 * 1
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1+4.679 * 0.010195-0.327 * 1.0287
=-2.15

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

This Year (Dec23) TTM:Last Year (Dec22) TTM:
Total Receivables was $848 Mil.
Revenue was $18,838 Mil.
Gross Profit was $18,838 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Assets was $126,724 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $445 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $7,364 Mil.
Net Income was $4,659 Mil.
Gross Profit was $177 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was $3,190 Mil.
Total Receivables was $647 Mil.
Revenue was $19,149 Mil.
Gross Profit was $19,149 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Assets was $131,738 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $530 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $7,442 Mil.




1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of Revenue in Total Receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(848 / 18838) / (647 / 19149)
=0.045015 / 0.033788
=1.3323

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(19149 / 19149) / (18838 / 18838)
=1 / 1
=1

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than Property, Plant and Equipment to Total Assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (0 + 445) / 126724) / (1 - (0 + 530) / 131738)
=0.996488 / 0.995977
=1.0005

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of Revenue in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=18838 / 19149
=0.9838

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(0 / (0 + 530)) / (0 / (0 + 445))
=0 / 0
=1

Note: If the Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization data is not available, we assume that the depreciation rate is constant and set the Depreciation Index to 1.

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) to Sales in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(0 / 18838) / (0 / 19149)
=0 / 0
=1

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to Total Assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((7364 + 0) / 126724) / ((7442 + 0) / 131738)
=0.058111 / 0.056491
=1.0287

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(4659 - 177 - 3190) / 126724
=0.010195

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Aflac has a M-score of -2.15 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.


Aflac (AFL) Business Description

Traded in Other Exchanges
Address
1932 Wynnton Road, Columbus, GA, USA, 31999
Aflac Inc offers supplemental health insurance and life insurance in the two largest insurance markets in the world, the U.S. and Japan. In addition to its cancer policies, the company has broadened its product offerings to include accident, disability, and long-term-care insurance. It markets its products through independent distributors, selling most of its policies directly to consumers at their places of work.
Executives
Steven Kent Beaver officer: SVP, CFO, Aflac US 1932 WYNNTON ROAD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
Masatoshi Koide officer: Deputy President, Aflac Japan 1932 WYNNTON RD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
June P Howard officer: Sr. Vice President 1932 WYNNTON RD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
Lake Charles D Ii officer: President AFLAC Japan AFLAC INC, 1932 WYNNTON RD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
Frederick John Crawford officer: EVP, Chief Financial Officer AFLAC INCORPORATED, COLUMBUS GA 31999
William P Bowers director 600 NORTH 18TH STREET, BIN 15N-8170, BIRMINGHAM AL 35203
Joseph L Moskowitz director 1932 WYNNTON ROAD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
Simard Frederic Jean Guy officer: SVP, CFO, Aflac U.S. 1932 WYNNTON ROAD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
James Todd Daniels officer: Sr. Vice President 1932 WYNNTON ROAD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
Albert Riggieri officer: SVP, Corporate Actuary 1932 WYNNTON RD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
Virgil Raynard Miller officer: President, Aflac U.S. 1932 WYNNTON ROAD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
Barbara K Rimer director 1932 WYNNTON ROAD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
Miwako Hosoda director 1932 WYNNTON ROAD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
Bradley Eugene Dyslin officer: Executive Vice President 1932 WYNNTON ROAD, COLUMBUS GA 31999
Audrey B Tillman officer: Executive Vice President 1932 WYNNTON RD, COLUMBUS GA 31999