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Progressive Beneish M-Score

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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

The historical rank and industry rank for Progressive's Beneish M-Score or its related term are showing as below:

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Progressive was -2.14. The lowest was -3.35. And the median was -2.63.


Progressive Beneish M-Score Historical Data

The historical data trend for Progressive's Beneish M-Score can be seen below:

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

* Premium members only.

Progressive Annual Data
Trend Dec12 Dec13 Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17 Dec18 Dec19 Dec20 Dec21
Beneish M-Score
Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only -2.60 -2.82 -2.53 - -

Progressive Quarterly Data
Sep17 Dec17 Mar18 Jun18 Sep18 Dec18 Mar19 Jun19 Sep19 Dec19 Mar20 Jun20 Sep20 Dec20 Mar21 Jun21 Sep21 Dec21 Mar22 Jun22
Beneish M-Score Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only - - - - -

Competitive Comparison

For the Insurance - Property & Casualty subindustry, Progressive's Beneish M-Score, along with its competitors' market caps and Beneish M-Score data, can be viewed below:

* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap. Note that "N/A" values will not show up in the chart.

   

Progressive Beneish M-Score Distribution

For the Insurance industry and Financial Services sector, Progressive's Beneish M-Score distribution charts can be found below:

* The bar in red indicates where Progressive's Beneish M-Score falls into.



Progressive Beneish M-Score Calculation

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Altman Z-Score) or business trend (Piotroski F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Progressive for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * +0.528 * +0.404 * +0.892 * +0.115 *
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * +4.679 * -0.327 *
=

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

This Year (Dec21) TTM:Last Year (Dec20) TTM:
Total Receivables was $14,380 Mil.
Revenue was $47,677 Mil.
Gross Profit was $47,677 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $59,383 Mil.
Total Assets was $71,132 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,137 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $337 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,069 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $4,899 Mil.
Net Income was $3,351 Mil.
Gross Profit was $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was $7,762 Mil.
Total Receivables was $12,180 Mil.
Revenue was $42,638 Mil.
Gross Profit was $42,638 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $54,285 Mil.
Total Assets was $64,098 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,106 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $332 Mil.
Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7,650 Mil.
Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was $5,396 Mil.




1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of Revenue in Total Receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(14380 / 47676.5) / (12179.5 / 42638.1)
=0.3016161 / 0.28564828
=

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(42638.1 / 42638.1) / (47676.5 / 47676.5)
=1 / 1
=

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than Property, Plant and Equipment to Total Assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (59382.8 + 1137.3) / 71132.3) / (1 - (54285.4 + 1106) / 64098.3)
=0.14918961 / 0.13583668
=

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of Revenue in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=47676.5 / 42638.1
=

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(331.8 / (331.8 + 1106)) / (337.4 / (337.4 + 1137.3))
=0.23076923 / 0.2287923
=

Note: If the Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization data is not available, we assume that the depreciation rate is constant and set the Depreciation Index to 1.

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) to Sales in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(0 / 47676.5) / (0 / 42638.1)
=0 / 0
=

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to Total Assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((4898.8 + 6069.1) / 71132.3) / ((5396.1 + 7650.3) / 64098.3)
=0.15419015 / 0.20353738
=

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(3350.9 - 0 - 7761.7) / 71132.3
=-0.062

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.


Progressive Beneish M-Score Related Terms

Thank you for viewing the detailed overview of Progressive's Beneish M-Score provided by GuruFocus.com. Please click on the following links to see related term pages.


Progressive Business Description

Progressive logo
Address
6300 Wilson Mills Road, Mayfield Village, OH, USA, 44143
Progressive underwrites private and commercial auto insurance and specialty lines; it has over 20 million personal auto policies in force and is the fourth- largest auto insurer in the United States. Progressive markets its policies through independent insurance agencies in the U.S. and Canada and directly via the internet and telephone. Its premiums are split roughly equally between the agent and the direct channel. The company also offers commercial auto policies and entered homeowners insurance through an acquisition in 2015.
Executives
Craig Pamela director C/O ACCENTURE 161 N CLARK STREET CHICAGO IL 60601
Clawson William L. Ii officer: Chief Human Resources Officer C/O THE PROGRESSIVE CORPORATION 6300 WILSON MILLS ROAD MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143
Kent Remi officer: Chief Marketing Officer 6300 WILSON MILLS ROAD MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143
Bauer Jonathan S. officer: Chief Investment Officer 6300 WILSON MILLS ROAD MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143
Marshall Mariann Wojtkun officer: Chief Accounting Officer C/O THE PROGRESSIVE CORPORATION 6300 WILSON MILLS RD. MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143
Tighe Jan E director C/O GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC 200 WEST STREET NEW YORK NY 10282
Snyder Barbara R director 127 PUBLIC SQUARE CLEVELAND OH 44114
Quigg Andrew J officer: Chief Strategy Officer C/O THE PROGRESSIVE CORPORATION 6300 WILSON MILLS ROAD MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143
Bleser Philip director 8760 CLAY ROAD SUITE 100 HOUSTON TX 77494
Broz Steven officer: Chief Information Officer C/O THE PROGRESSIVE CORPORATION 6300 WILSON MILLS ROAD MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143
Niederst Lori A officer: CRM President C/O THE PROGRESSIVE CORPORATION 6300 WILSON MILLS ROAD MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143
Bailo Karen officer: Commercial Lines President 6300 WILSON MILLS ROAD MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143
Mascaro Daniel P officer: Vice Pres, Secretary and CLO C/O THE PROGRESSIVE CORPORATION 6300 WILSON MILLS ROAD MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143
Murphy John Jo officer: Claims President C/O THE PROGRESSIVE CORPORATION 6300 WILSON MILLS ROAD MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143
Callahan Patrick K officer: Personal Lines President C/O THE PROGRESSIVE CORPORATION 6300 WILSON MILLS ROAD MAYFIELD VILLAGE OH 44143

Progressive Headlines

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