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Forrester Research (Forrester Research) Earnings Power Value (EPV) : $40.95 (As of Mar24)


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What is Forrester Research Earnings Power Value (EPV)?

As of Mar24, Forrester Research's earnings power value is $40.95. *

* GuruFocus does not store EPV value into our database if Average Maintenance CAPEX is 0.

Margin of Safety is 54.05

The basic concept of EPV is that one should value a stock based on the current free cash flow of a company and not on future projections which may, or may not, come true. It is arguably a better way to analyze stocks than Discounted Cash Flow analysis that relies on highly speculative growth assumptions many years into the future. Assumption: Current profitability is sustainable.


Forrester Research Earnings Power Value (EPV) Historical Data

The historical data trend for Forrester Research's Earnings Power Value (EPV) can be seen below:

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

* Premium members only.

Forrester Research Earnings Power Value (EPV) Chart

Forrester Research Annual Data
Trend Dec14 Dec15 Dec16 Dec17 Dec18 Dec19 Dec20 Dec21 Dec22 Dec23
Earnings Power Value (EPV)
Get a 7-Day Free Trial Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 17.81 26.53 33.42 38.68 40.06

Forrester Research Quarterly Data
Jun19 Sep19 Dec19 Mar20 Jun20 Sep20 Dec20 Mar21 Jun21 Sep21 Dec21 Mar22 Jun22 Sep22 Dec22 Mar23 Jun23 Sep23 Dec23 Mar24
Earnings Power Value (EPV) Get a 7-Day Free Trial Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only Premium Member Only 40.93 41.75 40.96 40.06 40.95

Competitive Comparison of Forrester Research's Earnings Power Value (EPV)

For the Consulting Services subindustry, Forrester Research's Earnings Power Value (EPV), along with its competitors' market caps and Earnings Power Value (EPV) data, can be viewed below:

* Competitive companies are chosen from companies within the same industry, with headquarter located in same country, with closest market capitalization; x-axis shows the market cap, and y-axis shows the term value; the bigger the dot, the larger the market cap. Note that "N/A" values will not show up in the chart.


Forrester Research's Earnings Power Value (EPV) Distribution in the Business Services Industry

For the Business Services industry and Industrials sector, Forrester Research's Earnings Power Value (EPV) distribution charts can be found below:

* The bar in red indicates where Forrester Research's Earnings Power Value (EPV) falls into.



Forrester Research Earnings Power Value (EPV) Calculation

Earnings Power Value also known as just Earnings Power is a valuation technique popularised by Bruce Greenwald, an authority on value investing at Columbia University. It is arguably a better way to analyze stocks than Discounted Cash Flow analysis that relies on highly speculative growth assumptions many years into the future.

The basic concept of EPV is that one should value a stock based on the current free cash flow of a company and not on future projections which may, or may not, come true. This valuation tool excludes the potential growth that a company may have so that needs to be looked at separately. Since future growth is excluded from the analysis, only the maintenance capital expenditures are subtracted from after-tax EBIT (earnings before interest and taxes) and growth capex is ignored.

Forrester Research's "Earning Power" Calculation:

Average of Last 20 Quarters Last Quarter
Revenue 484.6
DDA 38.1
Operating Margin % 5.29
SGA * 25% 57.8
Tax Rate % 16.18
Maintenance Capex 6.3
Cash and Cash Equivalents 118.5
Short-Term Debt 0.0
Long-Term Debt 69.5
Shares Outstanding (Diluted) 19.3

1. Start with "Earnings" not including accounting adjustments (one-time charges not excluded unless policy has changed). "Earnings" are "Operating Income.

2. Look at average margins over a business/Industry cycle: Average Operating Margin = 5.29%

To normalize margins and eliminate the effects on profitability of valuing the firm at different points in the business cycle, it is usually best to take a long-term average of operating margins. Ideally this would be as long as 10 years and include at least one economic downturn. However, since most of companies do not have as long as 10-year history, here GuruFocus uses the latest 5 years data to do the calculation. To smooth out unusual years but reflect recent developments, we take an average of the 5 year margin.

3. Multiply average margins by sustainable revenues and then adjust for maintenance SGA. This yields "normalized" EBIT:

To be conservative, GuruFocus uses an average of the 5 year revenues as the sustainable revenue.
EPV analysis recognises that part of SG&A expenditure is made to maintain and replace the existing assets, while part is made to grow sales. Since EPV is only interested in what it costs a going concern to maintain its existing asset base, it adds back a percentage of SG&A (between 15% and 50% - this is a matter of judgment and industry knowledge) to make up for the fact that some of this expenditure went to fund growth and shouldn't be accounted for. To start off, we assume 25% for the sake of prudence.
Sustainable Revenue = $484.6 Mil, Average Operating Margin = 5.29%, Average Adjusted SGA = 57.8,
therefore "Normalized" EBIT = Sustainable Revenue * Average Operating Margin + Average Adjusted SGA = 484.6 * 5.29% +57.8 = $83.3944342 Mil.

4. Multiply by one minus Average Tax Rate (NOPAT):

Same as average operating margin calculation, GuruFocus takes an average of the 5 years tax rates.
Average Tax Rate = 16.18%, and "Normalized" EBIT = $83.3944342 Mil,
therefore After-tax "Normalized" EBIT = "Normalized" EBIT * ( 1 - Average Tax Rate ) = 83.3944342 * ( 1 - 16.18% ) = $69.897878969072 Mil.

5. Add back Excess Depreciation (after tax at 1/2 average tax rate). This yields "normalized" Earnings:

Excess Depreciation = Average DDA * % of Excess Depreciation (after tax at 1/2 average tax rate) = 38.1 * 0.5 * 16.18% = $3.082695952 Mil.
"Normalized" Earnings = After-tax "Normalized" EBIT + Excess Depreciation = 69.897878969072 + 3.082695952 = $72.980574921072 Mil.

6. Adjusted for Maintenance Capital Expenditure:

First, calculate the revenue change regarding to the previous year. If the revenue decreased from the previous year, then the Maintenance Capital Expenditure = Capital Expenditure (positive).
Second, if the revenue increased from the previous year, then calculate the percentage of Net PPE as of corresponding Revenue.
Third, calculate Capital Expenditure (positive) - percentage of Net PPE as of corresponding Revenue * revenue increase.
If [Capital Expenditure (positive) - percentage of Net PPE as of corresponding Revenue * revenue increase] was negative, then the Maintenance Capital Expenditure = Capital Expenditure (positive).
If [Capital Expenditure (positive) - percentage of Net PPE as of corresponding Revenue * revenue increase] was positive, then the Maintenance Capital Expenditure = Capital Expenditure (positive) - percentage of Net PPE as of corresponding Revenue * revenue increase.
Fourth, GuruFocus uses an average of the 5 year maintenance capital expenditures as maintenance CAPEX.
Forrester Research's Average Maintenance CAPEX = $6.3 Mil *.
* GuruFocus does not store EPV value into our database if Average Maintenance CAPEX is 0.

7. Investors require a return of "WACC" for the risk they are taking: WACC = 9%

8. Forrester Research's current cash and cash equivalent = $118.5 Mil.
Forrester Research's current interest bearing debt = Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation + Short-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation = 69.5 + 0.0 = $69.472 Mil.
Forrester Research's current Shares Outstanding (Diluted Average) = 19.3 Mil.

Forrester Research's Earnings Power Value (EPV) for Mar24 is calculated as:

EPV = ( ( Norm. Earnings-Maint. CAPEX *) / WACC + CashandEquiv - Int. Bearing Debt ) / Shares Outstanding (Diluted Average)
= ( ( 72.980574921072 - 6.3)/ 9%+118.5-69.472 )/19.3
=40.95

Margin of Safety (EPV)=( Earnings Power Value (EPV)-Current Price )/Earnings Power Value (EPV)
=( 40.95344967077-18.82 )/40.95344967077
= 54.05%

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

* GuruFocus does not store EPV value into our database if Average Maintenance CAPEX is 0.


Forrester Research  (NAS:FORR) Earnings Power Value (EPV) Explanation

Assumption: Current profitability is sustainable.

Earnings power value (EPV) uses a very basic equation which assumes no growth, although it does rely on an assumption about the cost of capital as well as the fact that current earnings are sustainable. It also involves several adjustments to clean up the underlying Earnings figures.


Be Aware

Though using today's earnings in calculating Earnings Power Value, GuruFocus is normalizing these earnings to the business cycle. This eliminates the effects on profitability of valuing the firm at different points in the business cycle. This means that we are considering the average earnings over 5 years.


Forrester Research Earnings Power Value (EPV) Related Terms

Thank you for viewing the detailed overview of Forrester Research's Earnings Power Value (EPV) provided by GuruFocus.com. Please click on the following links to see related term pages.


Forrester Research (Forrester Research) Business Description

Traded in Other Exchanges
Address
60 Acorn Park Drive, Cambridge, MA, USA, 02140
Forrester Research Inc is a United States-based company that provides independent research, data, and advisory services. It operates through the following segments: The Research segment develops and delivers research, connect, and analytics products; The consulting segment includes the revenues and the related costs of the company's consulting organization, and the Events segment is engaged in developing and hosting in-person and virtual events.
Executives
Steven P. Peltzman officer: CBTO C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 60 ACORN PARK DRIVE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02140
Scott Chouinard officer: Chief Accounting Officer C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 400 TECHNOLOGY SQUARE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02139
Carrie Johnson officer: Chief Research Officer C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 60 ACORN PARK DRIVE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02140
Ryan Darrah officer: Chief Legal Officer C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 60 ACORN PARK DRIVE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02140
Anthony J Friscia director C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 60 ACORN PARK DRIVE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02140
Robert Galford director C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, 400 TECHNOLOGY SQUARE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02139
Alicia Lee officer: Chief Consulting Officer C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 60 ACORN PARK DRIVE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02140
Kelley Hippler officer: Chief Sales Officer C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 60 ACORN PARK DR., CAMBRIDGE MA 02140
David Boyce director C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 60 ACORN PARK DRIVE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02140
Roy Sarah Le officer: Chief People Officer C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 60 ACORN PARK DRIVE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02140
Warren N Romine director 7325 16TH STREET NW, WASHINGTON DC 20012
Sharyn Leaver officer: Chief Research Officer C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 60 ACORN PARK DRIVE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02140
Nathaniel Swan officer: Chief Sales Officer C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, INC., 60 ACORN PARK DRIVE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02140
George F Colony director, 10 percent owner, officer: Chairman & CEO C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH INC, 1033 MASSACHUSETTS AVE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02138
Gretchen Teichgraeber director C/O FORRESTER RESEARCH, 400 TECHNOLOGY SQUARE, CAMBRIDGE MA 02139