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# First Horizon (NYSE:FHN) Beneish M-Score

: -2.48 (As of Today)
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Note: Financial institutions were excluded from the sample in Beneish paper when calculating Beneish M-Score. Thus, the prediction might not fit banks and insurance companies.

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Good Sign:

Beneish M-Score -2.48 no higher than -1.78, which implies that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.

The historical rank and industry rank for First Horizon's Beneish M-Score or its related term are showing as below:

FHN' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -4.33   Med: -2.48   Max: 0.45
Current: -2.48

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of First Horizon was 0.45. The lowest was -4.33. And the median was -2.48.

## First Horizon Beneish M-Score Calculation

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Altman Z-Score) or business trend (Piotroski F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of First Horizon for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

 M = -4.84 + 0.92 * DSRI + 0.528 * GMI + 0.404 * AQI + 0.892 * SGI + 0.115 * DEPI = -4.84 + 0.92 * 1 + 0.528 * 1 + 0.404 * 1.1583 + 0.892 * 0.9611 + 0.115 * 0.5756 - 0.172 * SGAI + 4.679 * TATA - 0.327 * LVGI - 0.172 * 0.9494 + 4.679 * -0.0199 - 0.327 * 0.682 = -2.48

* For Operating Data section: All numbers are indicated by the unit behind each term and all currency related amount are in USD.
* For other sections: All numbers are in millions except for per share data, ratio, and percentage. All currency related amount are indicated in the company's associated stock exchange currency.

 This Year (Sep22) TTM: Last Year (Sep21) TTM: Total Receivables was \$0 Mil. Revenue was 853 + 720 + 688 + 702 = \$2,963 Mil. Gross Profit was 853 + 720 + 688 + 702 = \$2,963 Mil. Total Current Assets was \$13,152 Mil. Total Assets was \$80,299 Mil. Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was \$622 Mil. Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was \$93 Mil. Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was \$1,220 Mil. Total Current Liabilities was \$759 Mil. Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was \$1,597 Mil. Net Income was 265 + 174 + 195 + 227 = \$861 Mil. Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = \$0 Mil. Cash Flow from Operations was 768 + 824 + 694 + 173 = \$2,459 Mil. Total Receivables was \$0 Mil. Revenue was 738 + 763 + 790 + 792 = \$3,083 Mil. Gross Profit was 738 + 763 + 790 + 792 = \$3,083 Mil. Total Current Assets was \$24,520 Mil. Total Assets was \$88,537 Mil. Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was \$692 Mil. Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was \$56 Mil. Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) was \$1,337 Mil. Total Current Liabilities was \$2,225 Mil. Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation was \$1,584 Mil.

1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of Revenue in Total Receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

 DSRI = (Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) = (0 / 2963) / (0 / 3083) = 0 / 0 = 1

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

 GMI = GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t = (GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t) = (3083 / 3083) / (2963 / 2963) = 1 / 1 = 1

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than Property, Plant and Equipment to Total Assets.

 AQI = (1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1) = (1 - (13152 + 622) / 80299) / (1 - (24520 + 692) / 88537) = 0.82846611 / 0.7152377 = 1.1583

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of Revenue in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

 SGI = Sales_t / Sales_t-1 = Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1 = 2963 / 3083 = 0.9611

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

 DEPI = (Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t)) = (56 / (56 + 692)) / (93 / (93 + 622)) = 0.07486631 / 0.13006993 = 0.5756

Note: If the Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization data is not available, we assume that the depreciation rate is constant and set the Depreciation Index to 1.

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of Selling, General, & Admin. Expense(SGA) to Sales in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

 SGAI = (SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1) = (1220 / 2963) / (1337 / 3083) = 0.41174485 / 0.4336685 = 0.9494

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to Total Assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase in leverage

 LVGI = ((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1) = ((1597 + 759) / 80299) / ((1584 + 2225) / 88537) = 0.02934034 / 0.04302156 = 0.682

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

 TATA = (IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t = (NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t = (861 - 0 - 2459) / 80299 = -0.0199

An M-Score of equal or less than -1.78 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -1.78 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

First Horizon has a M-score of -2.48 suggests that the company is unlikely to be a manipulator.

## First Horizon Beneish M-Score Related Terms

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